In the Bazhenov Formation, framboidal clusters and nodular pyrite formed in the dysoxic–anoxic interface within organic-rich sediments. Some nodule-like pyritized bituminous layers and pyrite nodules are similar to pyritized microbial mat fragments by the typical fine laminated structure. Framboidal pyrite of the Bazhenov Formation is enriched in redox-sensitive elements such as Mo, V, Au, Cu, Pb, Ag, Ni, Se, and Zn in comparison with the host shales and nodular pyrite. Nodular pyrite has higher concentrations of As and Sb, only. Strong positive correlations that can be interpreted as nano-inclusions of organic matter (Mo, V, Au), sphalerite (Zn, Cd, Hg, Sn, In, Ga, Ge), galena (Pb, Bi, Sb, Te, Ag, Tl), chalcopyrite (Cu, Se) and tennantite (Cu, As, Sb, Bi, Te, Ag, Tl) and/or the substitution of Co, Ni, As and Sb into the pyrite. On the global scale, pyrite of the Bazhenov Formation is very similar to pyrite from highly metalliferous bituminous black shales, associated, as a rule, with gas and oil-and-gas deposits. Enrichment with Mo and lower Co and heavy metals indicate a higher influence of seawater during formation of pyrite from the Bazhenov Formation in comparison to different styles of ore deposits. Transitional elements such as Zn and Cu in pyrite of the Bazhenov Formation has resulted from either a unique combination of the erosion of Cu–Zn massive sulfide deposits of the Ural Mountains from one side and the simultaneous manifestation of organic-rich gas seep activity in the West Siberian Sea from another direction.
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