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Open AccessArticle

Highly Metalliferous Potential of Framboidal and Nodular Pyrite Varieties from the Oil-Bearing Jurassic Bazhenov Formation, Western Siberia

1
Institute of Geology and Geochemistry, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Academic Vonsovsky str., 15, Ekaterinburg 620016, Russia
2
Institute of Mineralogy South Urals Research Center of Mineralogy and Geoecology of the Urals Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ilmeny Reserve, Miass 456317, Russia
3
Geological Department, South Ural State University, Lenin av., 76, Chelyabinsk 454080, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050449
Received: 26 February 2020 / Revised: 13 May 2020 / Accepted: 15 May 2020 / Published: 17 May 2020
In the Bazhenov Formation, framboidal clusters and nodular pyrite formed in the dysoxic–anoxic interface within organic-rich sediments. Some nodule-like pyritized bituminous layers and pyrite nodules are similar to pyritized microbial mat fragments by the typical fine laminated structure. Framboidal pyrite of the Bazhenov Formation is enriched in redox-sensitive elements such as Mo, V, Au, Cu, Pb, Ag, Ni, Se, and Zn in comparison with the host shales and nodular pyrite. Nodular pyrite has higher concentrations of As and Sb, only. Strong positive correlations that can be interpreted as nano-inclusions of organic matter (Mo, V, Au), sphalerite (Zn, Cd, Hg, Sn, In, Ga, Ge), galena (Pb, Bi, Sb, Te, Ag, Tl), chalcopyrite (Cu, Se) and tennantite (Cu, As, Sb, Bi, Te, Ag, Tl) and/or the substitution of Co, Ni, As and Sb into the pyrite. On the global scale, pyrite of the Bazhenov Formation is very similar to pyrite from highly metalliferous bituminous black shales, associated, as a rule, with gas and oil-and-gas deposits. Enrichment with Mo and lower Co and heavy metals indicate a higher influence of seawater during formation of pyrite from the Bazhenov Formation in comparison to different styles of ore deposits. Transitional elements such as Zn and Cu in pyrite of the Bazhenov Formation has resulted from either a unique combination of the erosion of Cu–Zn massive sulfide deposits of the Ural Mountains from one side and the simultaneous manifestation of organic-rich gas seep activity in the West Siberian Sea from another direction. View Full-Text
Keywords: framboids; pyrite; trace elements; bituminous shale; metals; Bazhenov Formation framboids; pyrite; trace elements; bituminous shale; metals; Bazhenov Formation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ivanov, K.S.; Maslennikov, V.V.; Artemyev, D.A.; Tseluiko, A.S. Highly Metalliferous Potential of Framboidal and Nodular Pyrite Varieties from the Oil-Bearing Jurassic Bazhenov Formation, Western Siberia. Minerals 2020, 10, 449.

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