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Article

Integrated Battery Scrap Recycling and Nickel Slag Cleaning with Methane Reduction

Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Aalto University, PO Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
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Minerals 2020, 10(5), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050435
Received: 3 April 2020 / Revised: 6 May 2020 / Accepted: 11 May 2020 / Published: 13 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Minerals)
Innovative recycling routes are needed to fulfill the increasing demand for battery raw materials to ensure sufficiency in the future. The integration of battery scrap recycling and nickel slag cleaning by reduction with methane was experimentally researched for the first time in this study. Industrial nickel slag from the direct Outotec nickel flash smelting (DON) process was mixed with both synthetic and industrial battery scrap. The end products of the slag-scrap mixtures after reduction at 1400 °C in a CH4 (5 vol %)-N2 atmosphere were an Ni–Co–Cu–Fe metal alloy and FeOx–SiO2 slag. It was noted that a higher initial amount of cobalt in the feed mixture increased the recovery of cobalt to the metal alloy. Increasing the reduction time decreased the fraction of sulfur in the metal alloy and magnetite in the slag. After reduction, manganese was deported in the slag and most of the zinc volatilized. This study confirmed the possibility of replacing coke with methane as a non-fossil reductant in nickel slag cleaning on a laboratory scale, and the recovery of battery metals cobalt and nickel in the slag cleaning process with good yields. View Full-Text
Keywords: cobalt; nickel; manganese; zinc; integration; non-fossil fuel; distribution cobalt; nickel; manganese; zinc; integration; non-fossil fuel; distribution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ruismäki, R.; Dańczak, A.; Klemettinen, L.; Taskinen, P.; Lindberg, D.; Jokilaakso, A. Integrated Battery Scrap Recycling and Nickel Slag Cleaning with Methane Reduction. Minerals 2020, 10, 435. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050435

AMA Style

Ruismäki R, Dańczak A, Klemettinen L, Taskinen P, Lindberg D, Jokilaakso A. Integrated Battery Scrap Recycling and Nickel Slag Cleaning with Methane Reduction. Minerals. 2020; 10(5):435. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050435

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ruismäki, Ronja, Anna Dańczak, Lassi Klemettinen, Pekka Taskinen, Daniel Lindberg, and Ari Jokilaakso. 2020. "Integrated Battery Scrap Recycling and Nickel Slag Cleaning with Methane Reduction" Minerals 10, no. 5: 435. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050435

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