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Article

Phosphorus and Metals Leaching from Green Roof Substrates and Aggregates Used in Their Composition

1
Department of Environmental Development, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences—SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Revitalization and Architecture, Institute of Civil Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences—SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
3
Department of Landscape Architecture, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences—SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020112
Received: 18 December 2019 / Revised: 16 January 2020 / Accepted: 24 January 2020 / Published: 28 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Mineral-Based Amendments)
Green roofs are constructions made of different layers, each serving a dedicated function. Substrates and materials used in their composition are essential from the point of view of rainwater retention and plant development, but they may have an adverse effect on runoff quality. Literature studies show that phosphorus and heavy metals are of main importance. The total roofs area covered with green increased in the last years in cities as they are efficient in retention of rainwater and delaying of the runoff, therefore, protecting the cities against floods. As green roofs filtrate a significant amount of rainwater, materials used in substrates composition should be carefully selected to protect urban receivers against pollution. The aim of this study was to assess phosphorus and heavy metals leaching from different green roof substrates and their components with the focus on green roof runoff quality. Both commercially made green roof substrates and often used compounds (construction aggregates) were tested in laboratory batch tests for P, Cu, Ni, Cd, and Zn content in extracts. Based on the results of this study, it could be emphasized that a large part of commonly used construction aggregates can be a source of phosphorus, some also can release elevated values of nickel. Therefore, the materials should be carefully tested before use in the green roof substrate composition, not only for their physical properties reflecting water retention capacity, but also for chemical composition. View Full-Text
Keywords: green roofs; phosphorus; heavy metals; rainwater runoff green roofs; phosphorus; heavy metals; rainwater runoff
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MDPI and ACS Style

Karczmarczyk, A.; Baryła, A.; Fronczyk, J.; Bus, A.; Mosiej, J. Phosphorus and Metals Leaching from Green Roof Substrates and Aggregates Used in Their Composition. Minerals 2020, 10, 112. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020112

AMA Style

Karczmarczyk A, Baryła A, Fronczyk J, Bus A, Mosiej J. Phosphorus and Metals Leaching from Green Roof Substrates and Aggregates Used in Their Composition. Minerals. 2020; 10(2):112. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020112

Chicago/Turabian Style

Karczmarczyk, Agnieszka, Anna Baryła, Joanna Fronczyk, Agnieszka Bus, and Józef Mosiej. 2020. "Phosphorus and Metals Leaching from Green Roof Substrates and Aggregates Used in Their Composition" Minerals 10, no. 2: 112. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020112

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