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Symmetry 2017, 9(3), 28;

On the Legibility of Mirror-Reflected and Rotated Text

Department of Psychology, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marco Bertamini
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Vision)
Full-Text   |   PDF [693 KB, uploaded 23 February 2017]   |  


We happened to observe that text that was reflected about either the horizontal or vertical axis was more difficult to read than text that was reflected about first one and then the other, which amounts to a 180-degree rotation. In this article, we review a number of studies that examine the nature of recognizing reflected and inverted letters, and the frequency of mirror reversal errors (e.g., confusing 'b' for 'd') in children and adults. We explore recent ideas linking the acquisition of literacy with the loss of mirror-invariance, not just for text, but for objects in general. We try to connect these various literatures to examine why certain transformations of text are more difficult to read than others for adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: mirror-reversal; left-right reversal; reading; reversal errors; mirrored text mirror-reversal; left-right reversal; reading; reversal errors; mirrored text

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Erlikhman, G.; Strother, L.; Barzakov, I.; Caplovitz, G.P. On the Legibility of Mirror-Reflected and Rotated Text. Symmetry 2017, 9, 28.

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