Next Article in Journal
Low Scale Saturation of Effective NN Interactions and Their Symmetries
Previous Article in Journal
On Solutions for Linear and Nonlinear Schrödinger Equations with Variable Coefficients: A Computational Approach
Open AccessArticle

Hybrid Data Hiding Scheme Using Right-Most Digit Replacement and Adaptive Least Significant Bit for Digital Images

1
Department of Computer System & Technology, Faculty of Computer Science & Information Technology, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2
School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
3
Department of Computer Science, Namal College (an Associate College of the University of Bradford, UK), Mianwali 42250, Pakistan
4
Department of Cyber Security, Kyungil University, 712-701, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sergei Odintsov
Symmetry 2016, 8(6), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym8060041
Received: 3 February 2016 / Revised: 17 May 2016 / Accepted: 23 May 2016 / Published: 31 May 2016
The goal of image steganographic methods considers three main key issues: high embedding capacity, good visual symmetry/quality, and security. In this paper, a hybrid data hiding method combining the right-most digit replacement (RMDR) with an adaptive least significant bit (ALSB) is proposed to provide not only high embedding capacity but also maintain a good visual symmetry. The cover-image is divided into lower texture (symmetry patterns) and higher texture (asymmetry patterns) areas and these textures determine the selection of RMDR and ALSB methods, respectively, according to pixel symmetry. This paper has three major contributions. First, the proposed hybrid method enhanced the embedding capacity due to efficient ALSB utilization in the higher texture areas of cover images. Second, the proposed hybrid method maintains the high visual quality because RMDR has the closest selection process to generate the symmetry between stego and cover pixels. Finally, the proposed hybrid method is secure against statistical regular or singular (RS) steganalysis and pixel difference histogram steganalysis because RMDR is capable of evading the risk of RS detection attacks due to pixel digits replacement instead of bits. Extensive experimental tests (over 1500+ cover images) are conducted with recent least significant bit (LSB)-based hybrid methods and it is demonstrated that the proposed hybrid method has a high embedding capacity (800,019 bits) while maintaining good visual symmetry (39.00% peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR)). View Full-Text
Keywords: information hiding; hybrid steganography; image security; right-most digit replacement; visual symmetry information hiding; hybrid steganography; image security; right-most digit replacement; visual symmetry
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Hussain, M.; Abdul Wahab, A.W.; Javed, N.; Jung, K.-H. Hybrid Data Hiding Scheme Using Right-Most Digit Replacement and Adaptive Least Significant Bit for Digital Images. Symmetry 2016, 8, 41.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop