# A New Strategy for Improving the Tracking Performance of Magnetic Levitation System in Maglev Train

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Nominal Controller of Magnetic Levitation System

- The magnetic flux leakage and edge effect are neglected, and it is determined that the magnetic flux is uniformly distributed in the air gap.
- It is considered that the electromagnetic force provided by the electromagnet concentrates on the geometric center, and the geometric center of the electromagnet coincides with the center of mass.
- There is no dislocation between the magnetic pole surface and the F-type track, namely, there is only vertical motion of the electromagnet relative to the track.

#### 2.1. Reference Coordinate Equation

#### 2.2. Electrical Equation

#### 2.3. Electromagnetic Force Equation

#### 2.4. Kinetic Equation

## 3. The Tracking Performance of Magnetic Levitation System on the Vertical Track Irregularity Condition

## 4. A New Strategy for Improving the Tracking Performance of the Magnetic Levitation System

## 5. Implementation and Experiment

## 6. Discussion

## 7. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 9.**The control block diagram of magnetic levitation system with consideration of track irregularity in maglev train line.

**Figure 10.**The tracking performance of magnetic levitation system when passing through the vertical track irregularity in a maglev train line. (

**a**) The suspension gap when entering the concave curve stage; (

**b**) the suspension gap when withdrawing from the concave curve stage; (

**c**) the suspension gap when entering the convex curve stage; (

**d**) the suspension gap when withdrawing from the convex curve stage.

**Figure 11.**The maximum fluctuation of the suspension gap when passing through the vertical track irregularity in maglev train line. (

**a**) Entering the concave curve stage; (

**b**) withdrawing from the concave curve stage; (

**c**) entering the convex curve stage; (

**d**) withdrawing from the convex curve stage.

**Figure 12.**The new control block diagram of magnetic levitation system with consideration of vertical curve in maglev train line.

**Figure 13.**The tracking performance of magnetic levitation system by utilizing the new strategy when passing through the vertical track irregularity in maglev train line. (

**a**) The suspension gap when entering the concave curve stage; (

**b**) the suspension gap when withdrawing from the concave curve stage; (

**c**) the suspension gap when entering the convex curve stage; (

**d**) the suspension gap when withdrawing from the convex curve stage.

**Figure 14.**The contrastive maximum fluctuation of suspension gap when passing through the vertical track irregularity in maglev train line. (

**a**) Entering the concave curve stage; (

**b**) withdrawing from the concave curve stage; (

**c**) entering the convex curve stage; (

**d**) withdrawing from the convex curve stage.

**Figure 17.**A photograph of the maglev train passing through the vertical section in Changsha maglev express.

**Figure 18.**The suspension gap and speed of suspension point in the maglev train when the vertical section is passed. (

**a**) The tenth suspension point in the Mc1 maglev train; (

**b**) The tenth suspension point in the M maglev train; (

**c**) The tenth suspension point in the Mc2 maglev train.

Symbol | Meaning | Quantity | Unit |
---|---|---|---|

$m$ | Mass of electromagnet | 400 | kg |

$M$ | Mass of carriage | 1000 | kg |

$R$ | Resistance | 1 | $\Omega $ |

$N$ | Number of turns | 360 | |

$A$ | Polar area | 0.038 | m^{2} |

${\mu}_{0}$ | vacuum permeability | $4\pi \times {10}^{-7}$ | |

${z}_{0}$ | set gap | 10 | mm |

Meaning | Quantity | Unit |
---|---|---|

Range | ±10 | g |

Sensitivity | 200 | mV/g |

Frequency Response | 0–2000 | Hz |

Residual Noise | 400 | μV RMS |

Non-Linearity (%FSO) | ±0.1 | / |

Transverse Sensitivity | <3 | % |

Damping Ratio | 0.7 | / |

Shock Limit | 6000 | g |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Zhai, M.; Long, Z.; Li, X.
A New Strategy for Improving the Tracking Performance of Magnetic Levitation System in Maglev Train. *Symmetry* **2019**, *11*, 1053.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11081053

**AMA Style**

Zhai M, Long Z, Li X.
A New Strategy for Improving the Tracking Performance of Magnetic Levitation System in Maglev Train. *Symmetry*. 2019; 11(8):1053.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11081053

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Zhai, Mingda, Zhiqiang Long, and Xiaolong Li.
2019. "A New Strategy for Improving the Tracking Performance of Magnetic Levitation System in Maglev Train" *Symmetry* 11, no. 8: 1053.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11081053