This paper proposes a novel curve-based or edge-based image registration technique that utilizes the curve transformation function and Gaussian function. It enables deformable image registration between images in different spaces, e.g., different color spaces or different medical image modalities. In particular, piecewise polynomial fitting is used to fit a curve and convert it to the global cubic B-spline control points. The transformation between the curves in the reference and source images are performed by using these control points. The image area is segmented with respect to the reference curve for the moving pixels. The Gaussian function, which is symmetric about the coordinates of the points of the reference curve, was used to improve the continuity in the intra- and inter-segmented areas. The overall result on curve transformation by means of the Hausdroff distance was 5.820 ± 1.127 pixels on average on several 512 × 512 synthetic images. The proposed method was compared with an ImageJ plugin, namely bUnwarpJ, and a software suite for deformable image registration and adaptive radiotherapy research, namely DIRART, to evaluate the image registration performance. The experimental result shows that the proposed method yielded better image registration performance than its counterparts. On average, the proposed method could reduce the root mean square error from 2970.66 before registration to 1677.94 after registration and can increase the normalized cross-correlation coefficient from 91.87% before registration to 97.40% after registration.
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