Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Land, Volume 8, Issue 7 (July 2019)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) We assessed the climate change vulnerability of 52 dominant upland vegetation types in the Western [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-10
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue: Landscape Urbanism and Green Infrastructure
Received: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 17 July 2019
Viewed by 343 | PDF Full-text (157 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the notion of landscape urbanism long neglected, interlinkages between ecology and architecture in the built environment are becoming visible. Yet, the diversity in understandings of the interconnections between cities and nature is the starting point for our research interest. This volume contains [...] Read more.
With the notion of landscape urbanism long neglected, interlinkages between ecology and architecture in the built environment are becoming visible. Yet, the diversity in understandings of the interconnections between cities and nature is the starting point for our research interest. This volume contains nine thoroughly refereed contributions concerning a wide range of topics in landscape architecture and urban green infrastructure. While some papers attempt to conceptualize the relation further, others clearly have an empirical focus. Thereby, this special issue provides a rich body of work, and will act as a starting point for further studies on biophilic urbanism and integrative policies, such as the sustainable development goals of the United Nations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Urbanism and Green Infrastructure) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Operationalizing Vulnerability: Land System Dynamics in a Transfrontier Conservation Area
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 16 July 2019
Viewed by 455 | PDF Full-text (1564 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Understanding how individuals, communities, and populations vary in their vulnerability requires defining and identifying vulnerability with respect to a condition, and then developing robust methods to reliably measure vulnerability. In this study, we illustrate how a conceptual model translated via simulation can guide [...] Read more.
Understanding how individuals, communities, and populations vary in their vulnerability requires defining and identifying vulnerability with respect to a condition, and then developing robust methods to reliably measure vulnerability. In this study, we illustrate how a conceptual model translated via simulation can guide the real-world implementation of data collection and measurement of a model system. We present a generalizable statistical framework that specifies linkages among interacting social and biophysical components in complex landscapes to examine vulnerability. We use the simulated data to present a case study in which households are vulnerable to conditions of land function, which we define as the provision of goods and services from the surrounding environment. We use an example of a transboundary region of Southern Africa and apply a set of hypothesized, simulated data to illustrate how one might use the framework to assess vulnerability based on empirical data. We define vulnerability as the predisposition of being adversely affected by environmental variation and its impacts on land uses and their outcomes as exposure (E), mediated by sensitivity (S), and mitigated by adaptive capacity (AC). We argue that these are latent, or hidden, characteristics that can be measured through a set of observable indicators. Those indicators and the linkages between latent variables require model specification prior to data collection, critical for applying the type of modeling framework presented. We discuss the strength and directional pathways between land function and vulnerability components, and assess their implications for identifying potential leverage points within the system for the benefit of future policy and management decisions. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Legitimacy Dilemmas in Direct Government Intervention: The Case of Public Land Development, an Example from the Netherlands
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
Viewed by 391 | PDF Full-text (238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The current paper examines the legitimacy dilemmas that rise from local governments’ direct policy instruments and market interventions. It takes the case of public land management strategies. The paper argues that current societal challenges—such as energy transition, climate change and inclusive urban innovation—require [...] Read more.
The current paper examines the legitimacy dilemmas that rise from local governments’ direct policy instruments and market interventions. It takes the case of public land management strategies. The paper argues that current societal challenges—such as energy transition, climate change and inclusive urban innovation—require planning practices to be more effective. Direct government instruments such as direct market interventions have proven to significantly reduce the implementation gap of planning practice. Looking at significant urban challenges, municipalities worldwide could be urged to apply such direct government instruments on a larger scale in the future. However, although direct government intervention in markets can be very effective, it is also controversial in terms of legitimacy. It explicitly and inevitably introduces financial incentives to the organization of government. Balancing these incentives against spatial planning interests unavoidably causes dilemmas. Based on eight Dutch case studies, this paper develops a framework to systematically spell out the legitimacy dilemmas that stem from public market intervention. It facilitates an explicit discussion on varying instrumental rationalities and improving the legitimacy of public action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Tenure and the Future of Cities)
Open AccessArticle
Social Impacts of Land Acquisition for Oil and Gas Development in Uganda
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
Viewed by 611 | PDF Full-text (2836 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Uganda’s oil and gas sector has transitioned from the exploration phase to the development phase in preparation for oil production (the operations phase). The extraction, processing, and distribution of oil require a great deal of infrastructure, which demands considerable acquisition of land from [...] Read more.
Uganda’s oil and gas sector has transitioned from the exploration phase to the development phase in preparation for oil production (the operations phase). The extraction, processing, and distribution of oil require a great deal of infrastructure, which demands considerable acquisition of land from communities surrounding project sites. Here, we examine the social impacts of project land acquisition associated with oil production in the Albertine Graben region of Uganda. We specifically consider five major oil related projects that have or will displace people, and we discuss the consequences of this actual or future displacement on the lives and livelihoods of local people. The projects are: Tilenga; Kingfisher; the East African Crude Oil Pipeline; the Kabaale Industrial Park; and the Hoima–Kampala Petroleum Products Pipeline. Our findings reveal both positive and negative outcomes for local communities. People with qualifications have benefited or will benefit from the job opportunities arising from the projects and from the much-needed infrastructure (i.e., roads, health centres, airport) that has been or will be built. However, many people have been displaced, causing food insecurity, the disintegration of social and cultural cohesion, and reduced access to social services. The influx of immigrants has increased tensions because of increasing competition for jobs. Crime and social issues such as prostitution have also increased and are expected to increase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land, Land Use and Social Issues)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Habitat Climate Change Vulnerability Index Applied to Major Vegetation Types of the Western Interior United States
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 6 July 2019
Viewed by 675 | PDF Full-text (12494 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We applied a framework to assess climate change vulnerability of 52 major vegetation types in the Western United States to provide a spatially explicit input to adaptive management decisions. The framework addressed climate exposure and ecosystem resilience; the latter derived from analyses of [...] Read more.
We applied a framework to assess climate change vulnerability of 52 major vegetation types in the Western United States to provide a spatially explicit input to adaptive management decisions. The framework addressed climate exposure and ecosystem resilience; the latter derived from analyses of ecosystem sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Measures of climate change exposure used observed climate change (1981–2014) and then climate projections for the mid-21st century (2040–2069 RCP 4.5). Measures of resilience included (under ecosystem sensitivity) landscape intactness, invasive species, fire regime alteration, and forest insect and disease risk, and (under adaptive capacity), measures for topo-climate variability, diversity within functional species groups, and vulnerability of any keystone species. Outputs are generated per 100 km2 hexagonal area for each type. As of 2014, moderate climate change vulnerability was indicated for >50% of the area of 50 of 52 types. By the mid-21st century, all but 19 types face high or very high vulnerability with >50% of the area scoring in these categories. Measures for resilience explain most components of vulnerability as of 2014, with most targeted vegetation scoring low in adaptive capacity measures and variably for specific sensitivity measures. Elevated climate exposure explains increases in vulnerability between the current and mid-century time periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Vegetation and Land Surface Dynamics in a Changing Climate)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Challenges and Opportunities of Social Media Data for Socio-Environmental Systems Research
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 28 June 2019 / Published: 4 July 2019
Viewed by 651 | PDF Full-text (8731 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Social media data provide an unprecedented wealth of information on people’s perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors at fine spatial and temporal scales and over broad extents. Social media data produce insight into relationships between people and the environment at scales that are generally prohibited [...] Read more.
Social media data provide an unprecedented wealth of information on people’s perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors at fine spatial and temporal scales and over broad extents. Social media data produce insight into relationships between people and the environment at scales that are generally prohibited by the spatial and temporal mismatch between traditional social and environmental data. These data thus have great potential for use in socio-environmental systems (SES) research. However, biases in who uses social media platforms, and what they use them for, create uncertainty in the potential insights from these data. Here, we describe ways that social media data have been used in SES research, including tracking land-use and environmental changes, natural resource use, and ecosystem service provisioning. We also highlight promising areas for future research and present best practices for SES research using social media data. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessCommunication
Between Promising Advances and Deepening Concerns: A Bottom-Up Review of Trends in Land Governance 2015–2018
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 28 June 2019 / Published: 2 July 2019
Viewed by 727 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An evolving land governance context compounds the case for practitioners to closely track developments as they unfold. While much research sheds light on key trends, questions remain about approaches for collective bottom-up analysis led by land governance practitioners themselves. This study presents findings [...] Read more.
An evolving land governance context compounds the case for practitioners to closely track developments as they unfold. While much research sheds light on key trends, questions remain about approaches for collective bottom-up analysis led by land governance practitioners themselves. This study presents findings from an initiative to test such an approach. Drawing on written submissions made in response to an open call for contributions, the study discusses global trends in land governance over the period 2015–2018. While not a comprehensive review nor a replacement for empirically grounded research, the study highlights some of the developments practitioners grapple with in their work. The findings point to the contrasting local-to-global trends that affect land governance in diverse agro-ecological and socio-economic settings: Growing commercial pressures on land, and shrinking spaces for dissent in many contexts, coexist with new avenues for public participation in land governance processes; while diverse approaches to securing land rights, whether individual or collective, possibly underpinned by new deployments of digital technology, can coexist or compete for policy traction within the same polity. This bottom-up trends analysis broadly correlates with available accounts based on empirical research, while also providing distinctive emphases that reflect the ways practitioners perceive the changing realities they are engaged with. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Landscape Economic Attractiveness: An Integrated Methodology for Exploring the Rural Landscapes in Piedmont (Italy)
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
Viewed by 384 | PDF Full-text (2871 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present paper focuses on an integrated evaluation methodology aimed at measuring the attractiveness of rural landscapes. The landscapes under observation are two exceptional contexts in Piedmont (Italy): The Moraine Amphitheatre of Ivrea and the vineyard landscape of Langhe, Roero and Monferrato, which [...] Read more.
The present paper focuses on an integrated evaluation methodology aimed at measuring the attractiveness of rural landscapes. The landscapes under observation are two exceptional contexts in Piedmont (Italy): The Moraine Amphitheatre of Ivrea and the vineyard landscape of Langhe, Roero and Monferrato, which have recently been included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. The proposed investigation tool consists of the use of a system of landscape indicators, from which a synthetic index called the landscape economic attractiveness index has been obtained, and the integration of the results in a dynamic model, considering the synthetic index as a factor of people mobility in a multi-pole system. This integrated approach aims at supporting the decision-making process in the definition and orientation of landscape and territorial transformation policies, respecting the landscape components. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Different Meanings of Land in the Age of Neoliberalism: Theoretical Reflections on Commons and Resilience Grabbing from a Social Anthropological Perspective
Received: 5 May 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 24 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
Viewed by 497 | PDF Full-text (559 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent debates in social anthropology on land acquisitions highlight the need to go further back in history in order to analyse their impacts on local livelihoods. The debate over the commons in economic and ecological anthropology helps us understand some of today’s dynamics [...] Read more.
Recent debates in social anthropology on land acquisitions highlight the need to go further back in history in order to analyse their impacts on local livelihoods. The debate over the commons in economic and ecological anthropology helps us understand some of today’s dynamics by looking at precolonial common property institutions and the way they were transformed by Western colonization to state property and then, later in the age of neoliberalism, to privatization and open access. This paper focuses on Africa and refers to the work of critical scholars who show that traditional land tenure was misinterpreted as customary tenure without full property rights, while a broader literature on the commons shows that common-pool resources (pasture, fisheries, wildlife, forestry etc.) have been effectively managed by locally-developed common property institutions. This misinterpretation continues to function as a legacy in both juridical and popular senses. Moreover, the transformation of political systems and the notion of customary land tenure produced effects of central importance for today’s investment context. During colonial times a policy of indirect rule based on new elites was created to manage customary lands of so-called native groups who could use the land as long as it was of no value to the state. However, this land formally remained in the hands of the state, which also claimed to manage common-pool resources through state institutions. The neoliberal policies that are now demanded by donor agencies have had two consequences for land and land-related common-pool resources. On the one hand, states often lack the financial means to enforce their own natural resource legislation and this has led to de facto open access. On the other hand, land legally fragmented from its common-pool resources has been transformed from state to private property. This has enabled new elites and foreign investors to claim private property on formerly commonly-held land, which also leads to the loss of access to land related common-pool resources for more marginal local actors. Thus, the paper argues that this process does not just lead to land grabbing but to commons grabbing as well. This has furthermore undermined the resilience and adaptive capacity of local populations because access to common-pool resources is vital for the livelihoods of more marginal groups, especially in times of crisis. Comparative studies undertaken on floodplains in Botswana, Cameroon, Mali, Tanzania and Zambia based on a New Institutional Political Ecology (NIPE) approach illustrate this process and its impacts and show how institutional transformations are key to understanding the impacts of large-scale land acquisitions (LSLA) and investments in Africa. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Climate, Land Use and Land Cover Changes in the Bandama Basin (Côte D’Ivoire, West Africa) and Incidences on Hydropower Production of the Kossou Dam
Received: 2 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
Viewed by 462 | PDF Full-text (2977 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Climate and land use/cover changes are potential drivers of change in hydrology and water use. Incidences of these factors on Bandama hydrological basin and Kossou hydropower generation (1981–2016) in West Africa are assessed in this present work. Using Landsat products of United Stated [...] Read more.
Climate and land use/cover changes are potential drivers of change in hydrology and water use. Incidences of these factors on Bandama hydrological basin and Kossou hydropower generation (1981–2016) in West Africa are assessed in this present work. Using Landsat products of United Stated Geological Survey, results show that water bodies areas and land use have increased by 1.89%/year and 11.56%/year respectively, whereas herbaceous savanna, savanna, forest and evergreen forest coverage have been reduced by 1.39%/year, 0.02%/year, 2.39%/year and 3.33%/year respectively from 1988 to 2016. Hydroclimatic analysis reveals that streamflow presents greater change in magnitude compared to rainfall though both increasing trends are not statistically significant at annual scale. Streamflow varies at least four (two) times greatly than the rainfall (monthly and seasonally) annually except during driest months probably due to land use/cover change. In contrast, Kossou hydropower generation is significantly decreasing (p-value 0.007) at both monthly and annual scales possibly due to water abstraction at upstream. Further works are required to elucidate the combined effects of land use/cover and climate changes on hydrological system as well as water abstraction on Kossou generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Progress and Prospects)
Figures

Figure 1

Land EISSN 2073-445X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top