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Water, Volume 7, Issue 2 (February 2015) – 25 articles , Pages 362-835

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Editorial
Water Best Paper Award 2015
Water 2015, 7(2), 833-835; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020833 - 16 Feb 2015
Viewed by 2449
Abstract
To better recognize the outstanding papers in the area of water sciences and technology published in Water, we announce the institution of an annual award.[...] Full article
Article
Spatial Variability of Escherichia coli in Rivers of Northern Coastal Ecuador
Water 2015, 7(2), 818-832; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020818 - 13 Feb 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3647
Abstract
The use of contaminated surface water continues to be a pressing issue in areas of the world where people lack improved drinking water sources. In northern coastal Ecuador, many communities rely on untreated surface water as their primary source of drinking water. We [...] Read more.
The use of contaminated surface water continues to be a pressing issue in areas of the world where people lack improved drinking water sources. In northern coastal Ecuador, many communities rely on untreated surface water as their primary source of drinking water. We undertook a study to explore how microscale river hydrodynamics affect microbial water quality at community water collection locations at three rivers with varying stream velocity and turbidity profiles. To examine how the distance from river shore and physiochemical water quality variables affect microbial contamination levels in the rivers; we collected a total of 355 water samples within six villages on three rivers; and tested for Escherichia coli concentrations using the IDEXX Quanti-tray method. We found that log10 E. coli concentrations decreased with increasing distance from shore (β = −0.017; p = 0.003). Water in the main channel had E. coli concentrations on average 0.12 log10 lower than within eddies along the river shore and 0.27 log10 lower between the sample closest to shore and any sample >6 m from the shore. Higher E. coli concentrations were also significantly associated with increased turbidity (β = 0.003; p < 0.0001) and decreased dissolved oxygen levels (β = −0.310; p < 0.0001). The results of this study can help inform community members about the safest locations to collect drinking water and also provide information on watershed scale transport of microbial contaminants between villages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Treatment and Human Health)
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Article
Target Detection Method for Water Mapping Using Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS Imagery
Water 2015, 7(2), 794-817; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020794 - 13 Feb 2015
Cited by 56 | Viewed by 4004
Abstract
Extracting surface water distribution with satellite imagery has been an important subject in remote sensing. Spectral indices of water only use information from a limited number of bands, thus they may have poor performance from pixels contaminated by ice/snow, clouds, etc. The detection [...] Read more.
Extracting surface water distribution with satellite imagery has been an important subject in remote sensing. Spectral indices of water only use information from a limited number of bands, thus they may have poor performance from pixels contaminated by ice/snow, clouds, etc. The detection algorithms using information from all spectral bands, such as constrained energy minimization (CEM), could avoid this problem to some extent. However, these are mostly designed for hyperspectral imagery, and may fail when applied to multispectral data. It has been proved that adding linearly irrelevant data to original data could improve the performance of CEM. In this study, two kinds of linearly irrelevant data are added for water extraction: the spectral indices and the spectral similarity metric data. CEM is designed for targets with low-probability distribution in an image, but water bodies do not always satisfy this condition. We thereby impose a sensible coefficient for each pixel to form the weighted autocorrelation matrix. In this study, the weight is based on the orthogonal subspace projection, so this new method is named Orthogonal subspace projection Weighted CEM (OWCEM). The newly launched Landsat 8 images over two lakes, the Hala Lake in China with ice/snow distributed in the north, and the Huron Lake in North America, a lake with a very large surface area, are selected to test the accuracy and robustness of our algorithm. The Kappa coefficient and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve are calculated as an accuracy evaluation standard. For both lakes, our method can greatly suppress the background (including ice/snow and clouds) and extract the complete water surface with a high accuracy (Kappa coefficient > 0.96). Full article
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Article
Development of a Prototype Web-Based Decision Support System for Watershed Management
Water 2015, 7(2), 780-793; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020780 - 12 Feb 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 5354
Abstract
Using distributed hydrological models to evaluate the effectiveness of reducing non-point source pollution by applying best management practices (BMPs) is an important support to decision making for watershed management. However, complex interfaces and time-consuming simulations of the models have largely hindered the applications [...] Read more.
Using distributed hydrological models to evaluate the effectiveness of reducing non-point source pollution by applying best management practices (BMPs) is an important support to decision making for watershed management. However, complex interfaces and time-consuming simulations of the models have largely hindered the applications of these models. We designed and developed a prototype web-based decision support system for watershed management (DSS-WMRJ), which is user friendly and supports quasi-real-time decision making. DSS-WMRJ is based on integrating an open-source Web-based Geographical Information Systems (Web GIS) tool (Geoserver), a modeling component (SWAT, Soil and Water Assessment Tool), a cloud computing platform (Hadoop) and other open source components and libraries. In addition, a private cloud is used in an innovative manner to parallelize model simulations, which are time consuming and computationally costly. Then, the prototype DSS-WMRJ was tested with a case study. Successful implementation and testing of the prototype DSS-WMRJ lay a good foundation to develop DSS-WMRJ into a fully-fledged tool for watershed management. DSS-WMRJ can be easily customized for use in other watersheds and is valuable for constructing other environmental decision support systems, because of its performance, flexibility, scalability and economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydro-Ecological Modeling)
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Article
Improvement of Hydrological Simulations by Applying Daily Precipitation Interpolation Schemes in Meso-Scale Catchments
Water 2015, 7(2), 747-779; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020747 - 12 Feb 2015
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3161
Abstract
Ground-based precipitation data are still the dominant input type for hydrological models. Spatial variability in precipitation can be represented by spatially interpolating gauge data using various techniques. In this study, the effect of daily precipitation interpolation methods on discharge simulations using the semi-distributed [...] Read more.
Ground-based precipitation data are still the dominant input type for hydrological models. Spatial variability in precipitation can be represented by spatially interpolating gauge data using various techniques. In this study, the effect of daily precipitation interpolation methods on discharge simulations using the semi-distributed SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model over a 30-year period is examined. The study was carried out in 11 meso-scale (119–3935 km2) sub-catchments lying in the Sulejów reservoir catchment in central Poland. Four methods were tested: the default SWAT method (Def) based on the Nearest Neighbour technique, Thiessen Polygons (TP), Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Ordinary Kriging (OK). =The evaluation of methods was performed using a semi-automated calibration program SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Procedure Version 2) with two objective functions: Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and the adjusted R2 coefficient (bR2). The results show that: (1) the most complex OK method outperformed other methods in terms of NSE; and (2) OK, IDW, and TP outperformed Def in terms of bR2. The median difference in daily/monthly NSE between OK and Def/TP/IDW calculated across all catchments ranged between 0.05 and 0.15, while the median difference between TP/IDW/OK and Def ranged between 0.05 and 0.07. The differences between pairs of interpolation methods were, however, spatially variable and a part of this variability was attributed to catchment properties: catchments characterised by low station density and low coefficient of variation of daily flows experienced more pronounced improvement resulting from using interpolation methods. Methods providing higher precipitation estimates often resulted in a better model performance. The implication from this study is that appropriate consideration of spatial precipitation variability (often neglected by model users) that can be achieved using relatively simple interpolation methods can significantly improve the reliability of model simulations. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Water Flows in Four European Lagoon Catchments under a Set of Future Climate Scenarios
Water 2015, 7(2), 716-746; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020716 - 12 Feb 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3465
Abstract
Climate change is supposed to remarkably affect the water resources of coastal lagoons as they are highly vulnerable to changes occurring at their catchment and/or ocean or sea boundaries. Probable impacts of projected climate changes on catchment hydrology and freshwater input were assessed [...] Read more.
Climate change is supposed to remarkably affect the water resources of coastal lagoons as they are highly vulnerable to changes occurring at their catchment and/or ocean or sea boundaries. Probable impacts of projected climate changes on catchment hydrology and freshwater input were assessed using the eco-hydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) for the drainage areas of four European lagoons: Ria de Aveiro (Portugal), Mar Menor (Spain), Tyligulskyi Liman (Ukraine) and Vistula Lagoon (Poland/Russia) under a set of 15 climate scenarios covering the time period until the year 2100. Climate change signals for all regions show continuously increasing trends in temperature, but various trends in precipitation. Precipitation is projected to decrease in two catchments on the Iberian Peninsula and increase in the Baltic region catchment, and does not show a clear trend in the catchment located near the Black Sea. The average projected changes in freshwater inputs reflect these changes in climate conditions, but often show variability between the scenarios, in future periods, and within the catchments. According to the individual degrees of water management influences in the four drainage basins, the climate sensitivity of river inflows is differently pronounced in each. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydro-Ecological Modeling)
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Article
Biomonitoring of Epilobium hirsutum L. Health Status to Assess Water Ecotoxicity in Constructed Wetlands Treating Mixtures of Contaminants
Water 2015, 7(2), 697-715; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020697 - 10 Feb 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3013
Abstract
For the treatment of wastewater containing organic pollutants and metals in constructed wetlands (CWs), phytoindicators may help in guiding management practices for plants and optimizing phytoremediation processes. Hairy willow-herb (Epilobium hirsutum L.) is a fast growing species commonly found in European CWs [...] Read more.
For the treatment of wastewater containing organic pollutants and metals in constructed wetlands (CWs), phytoindicators may help in guiding management practices for plants and optimizing phytoremediation processes. Hairy willow-herb (Epilobium hirsutum L.) is a fast growing species commonly found in European CWs that could constitute a suitable phytoindicator of metal toxicity. E. hirsutum was exposed for 113 days in microcosm CWs, to a metal and metalloid mixture (MPM, containing Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn), an organic pollutant mixture (OPM, containing hydrocarbonsC10-C40, phenanthrene, pyrene, anionic detergent LAS) and an organic pollutant and metal and metalloid mixture (OMPM), separately and at concentration levels mimicking levels of industrial effluents. Analyses of metal and As concentrations in biomass, and different biometric and physiological measurements were performed. Results showed that metal uptake patterns were affected by the type of pollutant mixture, resulting in variation of toxicity symptoms in E. hirsutum plants. Some of them appeared to be similar under MPM and OMPM conditions (leaf chlorosis and tip-burning, decrease of green leaf proportion), while others were characteristic of each pollutant mixture (MPM: Decrease of water content, increase of phenol content; OMPM: reduction of limb length, inhibition of vegetative reproduction, increase of chlorophyll content and Nitrogen balance index). Results emphasize the potential of E. hirsutum as a bioindicator species to be used in European CWs treating water with metal, metalloid and organic pollutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Control and Management)
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Article
Hydrodynamic Performances of Air-Water Flows in Gullies with and without Swirl Generation Vanes for Drainage Systems of Buildings
Water 2015, 7(2), 679-696; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020679 - 10 Feb 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3597
Abstract
As an attempt to improve the performances of multi-entry gullies with applications to drainage system of a building, the hydrodynamic characteristics of air-water flows through the gullies with and without swirl generation vanes (SGV) are experimentally and numerically examined. With the aid of [...] Read more.
As an attempt to improve the performances of multi-entry gullies with applications to drainage system of a building, the hydrodynamic characteristics of air-water flows through the gullies with and without swirl generation vanes (SGV) are experimentally and numerically examined. With the aid of present Charge Coupled Device (CCD) image and optical systems for experimental study, the mechanism of air entrainment by vortex, the temporal variations of airflow pressure, the trajectories of drifting air bubbles and the self-depuration process for the gullies with and without SGV are disclosed. The numerical simulations adopt Flow-3D commercial code to attack the unsteady two-phase bubbly flows for resolving the transient fields of fluid velocity, vorticity and pressure in the gullies with and without SGV. In the twin-entry gully without SGV, air bubbles entrained by the entry vortex interact chaotically in the agitating bubbly flow region. With SGV to trip near-wall flows that stratify the drifting trajectories of the air bubbles, the air-bubble interactions are stabilized with the discharge rate increasing more than 7%. The reduction of the self-depuration period by increasing discharge rate is observed for the test gullies without and with SGV. Based on the experimental and numerical results, the characteristic hydrodynamic properties of the air-water flows through the test gullies with and without SGV are disclosed to assist the design applications of a modern drainage system in a building. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Drainage Systems)
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Article
Water Markets in Spain: Performance and Challenges
Water 2015, 7(2), 652-678; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020652 - 10 Feb 2015
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 3704
Abstract
Law 46/1999 incorporated formal water markets into the Spanish legal and regulatory framework, allowing spot water markets and the creation of water banks. The implementation of water markets in Spain aimed at improving the efficiency of water use by reallocating water towards uses [...] Read more.
Law 46/1999 incorporated formal water markets into the Spanish legal and regulatory framework, allowing spot water markets and the creation of water banks. The implementation of water markets in Spain aimed at improving the efficiency of water use by reallocating water towards uses with higher added value. However, the performance of water markets in Spain has been rather disappointing, since they have been operative only during drought periods, and even under these extreme scarcity situations, trading activity counted for less than 5.0% of total water use. The narrowness of the market suggests that there are some barriers hampering their effective functioning. This paper examines the evolution and performance of water markets in Spain, relying on a transaction costs analysis framework. This analysis allows the identification of the main factors impeding water markets from operating effectively as a water reallocation tool. This analysis also provides some guidelines on how to overcome these obstacles and, thus, how to improve the efficiency of water use. Full article
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Article
Spatial and Temporal Streamflow Trends in Northern Taiwan
Water 2015, 7(2), 634-651; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020634 - 10 Feb 2015
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 3290
Abstract
Streamflow is an important factor in the study of water resource management, floods, and droughts. Dramatic climate change has created extreme rainfall distributions, making the study of streamflow trends and variability even more crucial. In this study, the long-term streamflow data and trends [...] Read more.
Streamflow is an important factor in the study of water resource management, floods, and droughts. Dramatic climate change has created extreme rainfall distributions, making the study of streamflow trends and variability even more crucial. In this study, the long-term streamflow data and trends recorded at gauging stations in Northern Taiwan are analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test. The data used for trend analysis are the average annual streamflow, the average seasonal streamflow, and the high and low flows. The slope trend is calculated using the Theil-Sen estimator. Finally, change point analysis is conducted using the Mann-Whitney-Pettit test and the cumulative deviation test to gain further information about the change points and to understand the changes in streamflow before and after the change points. The average annual streamflow of the 12 gauging stations in the study area is analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test. The results show that of the 12 gauging stations, only the Ximen Bridge Station in the Lanyang River basin show a significant downward streamflow trend. Results of the monthly and seasonal average streamflow analysis show that in the spring, 72.2% of the gauging stations showed upward streamflow trends, most of which were located in the Tamsui River and the Touqian River basins. The high and low flow data analysis shows that the Ximen Bridge Station was the only gauging station to feature a significant downward streamflow trend for both high and low flows. This distribution pattern provides valuable information for regional hydrological studies and water management. Full article
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Article
Quantifying the Fecal Coliform Loads in Urban Watersheds by Hydrologic/Hydraulic Modeling: Case Study of the Beauport River Watershed in Quebec
Water 2015, 7(2), 615-633; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020615 - 09 Feb 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3526
Abstract
A three-step method for the identification of the main sources of fecal coliforms (FC) in urban waters and for the analysis of remedial actions is proposed. The method is based on (1) The statistical analysis of the relationship between rainfall and FC concentrations [...] Read more.
A three-step method for the identification of the main sources of fecal coliforms (FC) in urban waters and for the analysis of remedial actions is proposed. The method is based on (1) The statistical analysis of the relationship between rainfall and FC concentrations in urban rivers; (2) The simulation of hydrology and hydraulics; and (3) Scenario analysis. The proposed method was applied to the Beauport River watershed, in Canada, covering an area of 28.7 km2. FC loads and concentrations in the river, during and following rainfall events, were computed using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) hydrological/hydraulic simulation model combined with event mean concentrations. It was found that combined sewer overflows (CSOs) are the main FC sources, and that FC from stormwater runoff could still impair recreational activities in the Beauport River even if retention tanks were built to contain CSOs. Thus, intervention measures should be applied in order to reduce the concentration of FC in stormwater outfalls. The proposed method could be applied to water quality components other than FC, provided that they are present in stormwater runoff and/or CSOs, and that the time of concentration of the watershed is significantly lower than their persistence in urban waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Drainage Systems)
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Article
Short-Term Forecasting of Water Yield from Forested Catchments after Bushfire: A Case Study from Southeast Australia
Water 2015, 7(2), 599-614; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020599 - 09 Feb 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3148
Abstract
Forested catchments in southeast Australia play an important role in supplying water to major cities. Over the past decades, vegetation cover in this area has been affected by major bushfires that in return influence water yield. This study tests methods for forecasting water [...] Read more.
Forested catchments in southeast Australia play an important role in supplying water to major cities. Over the past decades, vegetation cover in this area has been affected by major bushfires that in return influence water yield. This study tests methods for forecasting water yield after bushfire, in a forested catchment in southeast Australia. Precipitation and remotely sensed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were selected as the main predictor variables. Cross-correlation results show that water yield with time lag equal to 1 can be used as an additional predictor variable. Input variables and water yield observations were set based on 16-day time series, from 20 January 2003 to 20 January 2012. Four data-driven models namely Non-Linear Multivariate Regression (NLMR), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), non-linear Autoregressive with External Input based Artificial Neural Networks (NARX-ANN), and Symbolic Regression (SR) were employed for this study. Results showed that NARX-ANN outperforms other models across all goodness-of-fit criteria. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) of 0.90 and correlation coefficient of 0.96 at the training-validation stage, as well as NSE of 0.89 and correlation coefficient of 0.95 at the testing stage, are indicative of potentials of this model for capturing ecological dynamics in predicting catchment hydrology, at an operational level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydro-Ecological Modeling)
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Editorial
Policy and Economics of Managed Aquifer Recharge and Water Banking
Water 2015, 7(2), 592-598; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020592 - 09 Feb 2015
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3606
Abstract
Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) and water banking are of increasing importance to water resources management. MAR can be used to buffer against drought and changing or variable climate, as well as provide water to meet demand growth, by making use of excess surface [...] Read more.
Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) and water banking are of increasing importance to water resources management. MAR can be used to buffer against drought and changing or variable climate, as well as provide water to meet demand growth, by making use of excess surface water supplies and recycled waters. Along with hydrologic and geologic considerations, economic and policy analyses are essential to a complete analysis of MAR and water banking opportunities. The papers included in this Special Issue fill a gap in the literature by revealing the range of economic and policy considerations relevant to the development and implementation of MAR programs. They illustrate novel techniques that can be used to select MAR locations and the importance and economic viability of MAR in semi-arid to arid environments. The studies explain how MAR can be utilized to meet municipal and agricultural water demands in water-scarce regions, as well as assist in the reuse of wastewater. Some papers demonstrate how stakeholder engagement, ranging from consideration of alternatives to monitoring, and multi-disciplinary analyses to support decision-making are of high value to development and implementation of MAR programs. The approaches discussed in this collection of papers, along with the complementary and necessary hydrologic and geologic analyses, provide important inputs to water resource managers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policy and Economics of Managed Aquifer Recharge and Water Banking)
Article
Modelling the Hydraulic Behaviour of Growing Media with the Explicit Finite Volume Solution
Water 2015, 7(2), 568-591; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020568 - 06 Feb 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2689
Abstract
The increasing imperviousness of urban areas reduces the infiltration and evapotranspiration capacity of urban catchments and results in increased runoff. In the last few decades, several solutions and techniques have been proposed to prevent such impacts by restoring the hydrological cycle. A limiting [...] Read more.
The increasing imperviousness of urban areas reduces the infiltration and evapotranspiration capacity of urban catchments and results in increased runoff. In the last few decades, several solutions and techniques have been proposed to prevent such impacts by restoring the hydrological cycle. A limiting factor in spreading the use of such systems is the lack of proper modelling tools for design, especially for the infiltration processes in a growing medium. In this research, a physically-based model, employing the explicit Finite Volume Method (FVM), is proposed for modelling infiltration into growing media. The model solves a modified version of the Richards equation using a formulation which takes into account the main characteristics of green infrastructure substrates. The proposed model was verified against the HYDRUS-1D software and the comparison of results confirmed the suitability of the proposed model for correctly describing the hydraulic behaviour of soil substrates. Full article
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Article
An Innovative Approach for Drainage Network Sizing
Water 2015, 7(2), 546-567; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020546 - 06 Feb 2015
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3454
Abstract
In this paper, a procedure for the optimal design of rural drainage networks is presented and demonstrated. The suggested approach, exploring the potentialities offered by heuristic methods for the solution of complex optimization problems, is based on the use of a Genetic Algorithm [...] Read more.
In this paper, a procedure for the optimal design of rural drainage networks is presented and demonstrated. The suggested approach, exploring the potentialities offered by heuristic methods for the solution of complex optimization problems, is based on the use of a Genetic Algorithm (GA), coupled with a steady and uniform flow hydraulic module. In particular, this work has focused: on one hand, on the problems of a technical nature posed by the correct sizing of a drainage network; on the other hand, on the possibility to use a simple but nevertheless efficient GA to reach the minimal cost solution very quickly. The suitability of the approach is tested with reference to small and large scale drainage networks, already considered in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Drainage Systems)
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Article
Application of the Multimodel Ensemble Kalman Filter Method in Groundwater System
Water 2015, 7(2), 528-545; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020528 - 04 Feb 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2629
Abstract
With the development of in-situ monitoring techniques, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has become a popular data assimilation method due to its capability to jointly update model parameters and state variables in a sequential way, and to assess the uncertainty associated with estimation [...] Read more.
With the development of in-situ monitoring techniques, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has become a popular data assimilation method due to its capability to jointly update model parameters and state variables in a sequential way, and to assess the uncertainty associated with estimation and prediction. To take the conceptual model uncertainty into account during the data assimilation process, a novel multimodel ensemble Kalman filter method has been proposed by incorporating the standard EnKF with Bayesian model averaging framework. In this paper, this method is applied to analyze the dataset obtained from the Hailiutu River Basin located in the northwest part of China. Multiple conceptual models are created by considering two important factors that control groundwater dynamics in semi-arid areas: the zonation pattern of the hydraulic conductivity field and the relationship between evapotranspiration and groundwater level. The results show that the posterior model weights of the postulated models can be dynamically adjusted according to the mismatch between the measurements and the ensemble predictions, and the multimodel ensemble estimation and the corresponding uncertainty can be quantified. Full article
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Article
Automatic Calibration Tool for Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN Using a Shuffled Complex Evolution Algorithm
Water 2015, 7(2), 503-527; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020503 - 04 Feb 2015
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 4308
Abstract
Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model calibration is typically done manually due to the lack of an automated calibration tool as well as the difficulty of balancing objective functions to be considered. This paper discusses the development and demonstration of an automated calibration tool [...] Read more.
Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model calibration is typically done manually due to the lack of an automated calibration tool as well as the difficulty of balancing objective functions to be considered. This paper discusses the development and demonstration of an automated calibration tool for HSPF (HSPF-SCE). HSPF-SCE was developed using the open source software “R”. The tool employs the Shuffled Complex Evolution optimization algorithm (SCE-UA) to produce a pool of qualified calibration parameter sets from which the modeler chooses a single set of calibrated parameters. Six calibration criteria specified in the Expert System for the Calibration of HSPF (HSPEXP) decision support tool were combined to develop a single, composite objective function for HSPF-SCE. The HSPF-SCE tool was demonstrated, and automated and manually calibrated model performance were compared using three Virginia watersheds, where HSPF models had been previously prepared for bacteria total daily maximum load (TMDL) development. The example applications demonstrate that HSPF-SCE can be an effective tool for calibrating HSPF. Full article
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Article
Basin Flood Risk Management: A Territorial Data-Driven Approach to Support Decision-Making
Water 2015, 7(2), 480-502; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020480 - 04 Feb 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3009
Abstract
This paper explores the applicability of flood impact databases in the flood risk governance process. This study begins with a twofold analysis of three hydrographical basins: one analysis based on the data of a recently constructed flood-impact database for Portugal and another based [...] Read more.
This paper explores the applicability of flood impact databases in the flood risk governance process. This study begins with a twofold analysis of three hydrographical basins: one analysis based on the data of a recently constructed flood-impact database for Portugal and another based on selected socioeconomic and biophysical variables that characterize the basins’ territorial context. From these sets of data, two fuzzy inference systems are assembled: one for the resource criteria and another for the time criteria. When plotted, the fuzzy analysis results are associated with distinct flood risk management strategies: operational and strategic, hard and soft measure-based. The three basins differ substantially in terms of flood-impact characteristics, with impacts being distinguished in terms of human and material consequences. Socioeconomic factors seem to be more explicative of flood impacts than the biophysical contexts that generate floods. The fuzzy logic analysis suggested priorities of action: early warning and information for one of the basins (Mondego) and a less operational solution, combining structural mitigation and land-use planning, for the other two basins (Lis and Vouga). Considering the current implementation of the Floods Directive, design of flood risk maps and flood risk management plans can benefit from the integration of the presented methodology. Full article
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Reply
Karst Aquifer Recharge: A Case History of over Simplification from the Uley South Basin, South Australia
Water 2015, 7(2), 464-479; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020464 - 04 Feb 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2861
Abstract
The article “Karst aquifer recharge: Comments on ‘Characteristics of Point Recharge in Karst Aquifers’, by Adrian D. Werner, 2014, Water 6, doi:10.3390/w6123727” provides misrepresentation in some parts of Somaratne [1]. The description of Uley South Quaternary Limestone (QL) as unconsolidated or poorly consolidated [...] Read more.
The article “Karst aquifer recharge: Comments on ‘Characteristics of Point Recharge in Karst Aquifers’, by Adrian D. Werner, 2014, Water 6, doi:10.3390/w6123727” provides misrepresentation in some parts of Somaratne [1]. The description of Uley South Quaternary Limestone (QL) as unconsolidated or poorly consolidated aeolianite sediments with the presence of well-mixed groundwater in Uley South [2] appears unsubstantiated. Examination of 98 lithological descriptions with corresponding drillers’ logs show only two wells containing bands of unconsolidated sediments. In Uley South basin, about 70% of salinity profiles obtained by electrical conductivity (EC) logging from monitoring wells show stratification. The central and north central areas of the basin receive leakage from the Tertiary Sand (TS) aquifer thereby influencing QL groundwater characteristics, such as chemistry, age and isotope composition. The presence of conduit pathways is evident in salinity profiles taken away from TS water affected areas. Pumping tests derived aquifer parameters show strong heterogeneity, a typical characteristic of karst aquifers. Uley South QL aquifer recharge is derived from three sources; diffuse recharge, point recharge from sinkholes and continuous leakage of TS water. This limits application of recharge estimation methods, such as the conventional chloride mass balance (CMB) as the basic premise of the CMB is violated. The conventional CMB is not suitable for accounting chloride mass balance in groundwater systems displaying extreme range of chloride concentrations and complex mixing [3]. Over simplification of karst aquifer systems to suit application of the conventional CMB or 1-D unsaturated modelling as described in Werner [2], is not suitable use of these recharge estimation methods. Full article
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Editorial
Evolution of Water Supply, Sanitation, Wastewater, and Stormwater Technologies Globally
Water 2015, 7(2), 455-463; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020455 - 03 Feb 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4337
Abstract
This paper provides an outline of history of hydro-technologies in the west and the east. It is an overview of the special issue on “the evolution of hydro-technologies globally”, in which the key topics regarding the history of water and sanitation worldwide, and [...] Read more.
This paper provides an outline of history of hydro-technologies in the west and the east. It is an overview of the special issue on “the evolution of hydro-technologies globally”, in which the key topics regarding the history of water and sanitation worldwide, and its importance to future cities are presented and discussed. It covers a wide range of relevant historical issues, and is presented in three categories: productivity assessment, institutional framework and mechanisms, and governance aspects. This paper concludes by discussing the challenges on future research in this field of study. Full article
Article
Comparison of Different Grid Cell Ordering Approaches in a Simplified Inundation Model
Water 2015, 7(2), 438-454; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020438 - 30 Jan 2015
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3286
Abstract
This study proposes a simplified model for non-riverine flood routing using a digital elevation model. The model has the advantage of running with only a few types of input, such as topographic data and cumulative rainfall. Given its ease of use, the model [...] Read more.
This study proposes a simplified model for non-riverine flood routing using a digital elevation model. The model has the advantage of running with only a few types of input, such as topographic data and cumulative rainfall. Given its ease of use, the model is stable and reliable for developing a real-time inundation forecasting system. This model uses two approaches to determine the collection of cells from which flooding is assumed to originate: (1) A traditional “lowest-elevation approach” that assumes flooding originates from the lowest elevations and that is only based on topographic data; and (2) a novel “D-infinity contributing area approach” that assumes flooding originates at the cells toward which the flow moves and that considers in situ topography and upslope information. The flood water is transferred based on the flat-water assumption that the water levels of adjacent cells are equalized. The performance was evaluated by comparing the simulated results with those from a complex inundation model. The simplified model with the lowest elevation assumption has limited applicability in flat areas and did not provide reasonable locations of the source of the flood. The D-infinity approach can improve the simplified inundation model and extend its application in various topographical areas. Full article
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Article
Determining Characteristic Vegetation Areas by Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Floodplain Flow Modeling
Water 2015, 7(2), 420-437; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020420 - 29 Jan 2015
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3734
Abstract
Detailed modeling of floodplain flows and associated processes requires data on mixed, heterogeneous vegetation at river reach scale, though the collection of vegetation data is typically limited in resolution or lack spatial information. This study investigates physically-based characterization of mixed floodplain vegetation by [...] Read more.
Detailed modeling of floodplain flows and associated processes requires data on mixed, heterogeneous vegetation at river reach scale, though the collection of vegetation data is typically limited in resolution or lack spatial information. This study investigates physically-based characterization of mixed floodplain vegetation by means of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The work aimed at developing an approach for deriving the characteristic reference areas of herbaceous and foliated woody vegetation, and estimating the vertical distribution of woody vegetation. Detailed experimental data on vegetation properties were gathered both in a floodplain site for herbaceous vegetation, and under laboratory conditions for 2–3 m tall trees. The total plant area (Atot) of woody vegetation correlated linearly with the TLS-based voxel count, whereas the Atot of herbaceous vegetation showed a linear correlation with TLS-based vegetation mean height. For woody vegetation, 1 cm voxel size was found suitable for estimating both the Atot and its vertical distribution. A new concept was proposed for deriving Atot for larger areas from the point cloud attributes of small sub-areas. The results indicated that the relationships between the TLS attributes and Atot of the sub-areas can be derived either by mm resolution TLS or by manual vegetation sampling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Remote Sensing of Flooding)
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Article
Benthic Uptake Rate due to Hyporheic Exchange: The Effects of Streambed Morphology for Constant and Sinusoidally Varying Nutrient Loads
Water 2015, 7(2), 398-419; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020398 - 23 Jan 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3170
Abstract
Hyporheic exchange carries reactive solutes, which may include biological oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO) and reactive dissolved inorganic nitrogen (Nr), into the sediment, where biochemical reactions consume DO. Here, we study the impact of streambed morphology, stream-reactive solute loads and their diel [...] Read more.
Hyporheic exchange carries reactive solutes, which may include biological oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO) and reactive dissolved inorganic nitrogen (Nr), into the sediment, where biochemical reactions consume DO. Here, we study the impact of streambed morphology, stream-reactive solute loads and their diel oscillations on the DO benthic uptake rate (BUR) due to hyporheic processes. Our model solves the hyporheic flow field and the solute transport equations analytically, within a Lagrangian framework, considering advection, longitudinal diffusion and reactions modeled as first order kinetics. The application of the model to DO field measurements over a gravel bar-pool sequence shows a good match with measured DO concentrations with an overall agreement of 58% and a kappa index of 0.46. We apply the model to investigate the effects of daily constant and sinusoidally time varying stream BOD, DO and Nr loads and of the morphodynamic parameters on BUR. Our modeling results show that BUR varies as a function of bedform size and of nutrient loads and that the hyporheic zone may consume up to 0.06% of the stream DO at the pool-riffle bedform scale. Daily oscillations of stream BOD and DO loads have small effects on BUR, but may have an important influence on local hyporheic processes and organisms’ distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Water Groundwater Interactions: From Theory to Practice)
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Article
Development of a Comprehensive Fouling Model for a Rotating Membrane Bioreactor System Treating Wastewater
Water 2015, 7(2), 377-397; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020377 - 23 Jan 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3843
Abstract
Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are now main stream wastewater treatment technologies. In recent times, novel pressure driven rotating membrane disc modules have been specially developed that induce high shear on the membrane surface, thereby reducing fouling. Previous research has produced dead-end filtration fouling model [...] Read more.
Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are now main stream wastewater treatment technologies. In recent times, novel pressure driven rotating membrane disc modules have been specially developed that induce high shear on the membrane surface, thereby reducing fouling. Previous research has produced dead-end filtration fouling model which combines all three classical mechanisms that was later used by another researcher as a starting point for a greatly refined model of a cross flow side-stream MBR that incorporated both hydrodynamics and soluble microbial products’ (SMP) effects. In this study, a comprehensive fouling model was created based on this earlier work that incorporated all three classical fouling mechanisms for a rotating MBR system. It was tested and validated for best fit using appropriate data sets. The initial model fit appeared good for all simulations, although it still needs to be calibrated using further appropriate data sets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Control and Management)
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Article
Land Application-Based Olive Mill Wastewater Μanagement
Water 2015, 7(2), 362-376; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7020362 - 22 Jan 2015
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3737
Abstract
Land application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) is considered a promising low-cost practice for olive-oil producing countries. The objectives of this work were to investigate: (i) OMW treatment potential of a land treatment system (LTS), planted with a E. camaldulensis species, regarding [...] Read more.
Land application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) is considered a promising low-cost practice for olive-oil producing countries. The objectives of this work were to investigate: (i) OMW treatment potential of a land treatment system (LTS), planted with a E. camaldulensis species, regarding N, P, C, and phenols; (ii) the effects of OMW on chemical properties of soil and soil solution characteristics; and (iii) the performance of E. camaldulensis in terms of biomass production and N and P recovery. E. camaldulensis received OMW for two growing seasons at rates based on maximum organic loading. These rates were almost equivalent to the reference evapotranspiration of the area. Soil solution and soil samples were collected from three different depths (15, 30 and 60 cm) at specified time intervals. -Also, samples of plant tissues were collected at the end of application periods. OMW land application resulted in significant reduction in inorganic and organic constituents of OMW. At 15 cm of soil profile, the average removal of COD, TKN, NH4+-N, TP, In-P, and total phenols approached 93%, 86%, 70%, 86%, 82%, and 85%, respectively, while an increase in soil depth (30 and 60 cm) did not improve significantly treatment efficiency. Furthermore, OMW increased soil organic matter (SOM), total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and available P, particularly in the upper soil layer. In contrast, low inorganic N content was observed in the soil throughout the study period caused probably by increased competition among soil microorganisms induced by the organic substrate supply and high C/N ratio. Also, electrical conductivity (EC) and SAR increased by OMW addition, but at levels that may do not pose severe risk for soil texture. Enhancement of soil fertility due to OMW application sustained eucalyptus trees and provided remarkable biomass yield. In conclusion, land application of OMW has a great potential for organic matter and phenol assimilation and can be effectively used for OMW detoxification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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