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Article

Sulfur Isotope and Stoichiometry–Based Source Identification of Major Ions and Risk Assessment in Chishui River Basin, Southwest China

1
Key Laboratory of Karst Geological Resources and Environment, College of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China
2
Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Disease Monitoring of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Frédéric Huneau
Water 2021, 13(9), 1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091231
Received: 22 March 2021 / Revised: 20 April 2021 / Accepted: 25 April 2021 / Published: 28 April 2021
Hydrochemistry and sulfur isotope (δ34S–SO42−) of Chishui River watershed in Southwest China were measured to identify the sources of riverine solutes, the potential impact of human activities, water quality, and health risk. The main findings indicated that the HCO3 (2.22 mmol/L) and Ca2+ (1.54 mmol/L) were the major ions, with the cation order of Ca2+ (71 ± 6%) > Mg2+ (21 ± 6%) > Na+ + K+ (8 ± 3%) and the anion sequence of HCO3 (55 ± 9%) > SO42− (41 ± 9%) > Cl (4 ± 3%). The riverine δ34S–SO42− values fluctuated from −7.79‰ to +22.13‰ (average +4.68‰). Overall, the water samples from Chishui River presented a hydrochemical type of Calcium–Bicarbonate. The stoichiometry and PCA analysis extracted three PCs that explained 79.67% of the total variances. PC 1 with significantly positive loadings of K+, Mg2+, F, HCO3 and relatively strong loading of Ca2+ revealed the natural sources of rock weathering inputs (mainly carbonate). PC 2 (Na+ and Cl) was primarily explained as atmospheric contribution, while the human inputs were assuaged by landscape setting and river water mixing processes. The strongest loadings of SO42− and NO3 were found in PC 3, which could be defined as the anthropogenic inputs. The H2SO4–involved weathering processes significantly impacted (facilitated weathering) the concentrations of riverine total ions. Sulfur isotope compositions further indicated that riverine SO42− were mainly controlled by anthropogenic inputs SO42− compared to the sulfide oxidation derived SO42−, and the atmospheric contribution was very limited. The results of risk and water quality assessment demonstrated that Chishui River water was desirable for irrigation and drinking purposes due to low hazard quotient values (<1, ignorable risk), but long–term monitoring is still worthy under the circumstances of global environmental change. View Full-Text
Keywords: water chemistry; sulfur isotope; ion source apportionment; water quality and risk assessment; Chishui River watershed water chemistry; sulfur isotope; ion source apportionment; water quality and risk assessment; Chishui River watershed
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ge, X.; Wu, Q.; Wang, Z.; Gao, S.; Wang, T. Sulfur Isotope and Stoichiometry–Based Source Identification of Major Ions and Risk Assessment in Chishui River Basin, Southwest China. Water 2021, 13, 1231. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091231

AMA Style

Ge X, Wu Q, Wang Z, Gao S, Wang T. Sulfur Isotope and Stoichiometry–Based Source Identification of Major Ions and Risk Assessment in Chishui River Basin, Southwest China. Water. 2021; 13(9):1231. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091231

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ge, Xin, Qixin Wu, Zhuhong Wang, Shilin Gao, and Tao Wang. 2021. "Sulfur Isotope and Stoichiometry–Based Source Identification of Major Ions and Risk Assessment in Chishui River Basin, Southwest China" Water 13, no. 9: 1231. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091231

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