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Article

Sediment Transport Dynamism in the Confluence Area of Two Rivers Transporting Mainly Suspended Sediment Based on Sentinel-2 Satellite Images

1
Department of Geoinformatics, Physical and Environmental Geography, University of Szeged, Egyetem u. 2–6, 6722 Szeged, Hungary
2
Department of Irrigation and Hydraulics Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bommanna Krishnappan
Water 2021, 13(21), 3132; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213132
Received: 29 September 2021 / Revised: 3 November 2021 / Accepted: 5 November 2021 / Published: 7 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water Erosion and Sediment Transport)
Downstream of the confluence of rivers, complex hydrological and morphological processes control the flow and sediment transport. This study aimed to analyze the spatio-temporal dynamics of suspended sediment in the confluence area of the Tisza and its main tributary Maros River using Sentinel-2 images and to reveal the correlation between the hydrological parameters and the mixing process through a relatively long period (2015–2021). The surficial suspended sediment dynamism was analyzed by applying K-means unsupervised classification algorithm on 143 images. The percentages of the Tisza (TW) and Maros (MW) waters and their mixture (MIX) were calculated and compared with the hydrological parameters in both rivers. The main results revealed that the areal, lateral, and longitudinal extensions of TW and MIX have a better correlation with the hydrological parameters than the MW. The Pearson correlation matrix revealed that the discharge ratio between the rivers controls the mixing process significantly. Altogether, 11 mixing patterns were identified in the confluence area throughout the studied period. The TW usually dominates the confluence in November and January, MW in June and July, and MIX in August and September. Predictive equations for the areal distribution of the three classes were derived to support future water sampling in the confluence area. View Full-Text
Keywords: stream junctions; remote sensing; hydrological parameters; sediment load; mixing of tributaries stream junctions; remote sensing; hydrological parameters; sediment load; mixing of tributaries
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mohsen, A.; Kovács, F.; Mezősi, G.; Kiss, T. Sediment Transport Dynamism in the Confluence Area of Two Rivers Transporting Mainly Suspended Sediment Based on Sentinel-2 Satellite Images. Water 2021, 13, 3132. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213132

AMA Style

Mohsen A, Kovács F, Mezősi G, Kiss T. Sediment Transport Dynamism in the Confluence Area of Two Rivers Transporting Mainly Suspended Sediment Based on Sentinel-2 Satellite Images. Water. 2021; 13(21):3132. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213132

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mohsen, Ahmed, Ferenc Kovács, Gábor Mezősi, and Tímea Kiss. 2021. "Sediment Transport Dynamism in the Confluence Area of Two Rivers Transporting Mainly Suspended Sediment Based on Sentinel-2 Satellite Images" Water 13, no. 21: 3132. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213132

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