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Article

Evaluation of Streamflow under Climate Change in the Zambezi River Basin of Southern Africa

Department of Civil Engineering, Central University of Technology, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa
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Academic Editor: Glen R. Walker
Water 2021, 13(21), 3114; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213114
Received: 6 October 2021 / Revised: 30 October 2021 / Accepted: 31 October 2021 / Published: 4 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Water Assessment and Management under Climate Change)
The Zambezi River basin is the fourth largest basin in Africa and the largest in southern Africa, comprising 5% of the total area of the continent. The basin is extremely vulnerable to climate change effects due to its highly variable climate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of climate change on streamflow in one of the sub-basins, the Kabombo basin. The multi- global climate model projections were used as input to the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model for simulation of streamflow under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 climate scenarios. The model predicted an annual streamflow increase of 85% and 6% for high uncertainty and strong consensus, respectively, under RCP 8.5. The model predicted a slightly reduced annual streamflow of less than 3% under RCP 4.5. The majority of simulations indicated that intra-annual and inter-annual streamflow variability will increase in the future for RCP 8.5 while it will reduce for the RCP 4.5 scenario. The predicted high and moderate rise in streamflow for RCP 8.5 suggests the need for adaptation plans and mitigation strategies. In contrast, the streamflow predicted for RCP 4.5 indicates that there may be a need to review the current management strategies of the water resources in the basin. View Full-Text
Keywords: catchment hydrology; global climate model; high uncertainty; streamflow simulation; strong consensus catchment hydrology; global climate model; high uncertainty; streamflow simulation; strong consensus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ndhlovu, G.Z.; Woyessa, Y.E. Evaluation of Streamflow under Climate Change in the Zambezi River Basin of Southern Africa. Water 2021, 13, 3114. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213114

AMA Style

Ndhlovu GZ, Woyessa YE. Evaluation of Streamflow under Climate Change in the Zambezi River Basin of Southern Africa. Water. 2021; 13(21):3114. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213114

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ndhlovu, George Z., and Yali E. Woyessa. 2021. "Evaluation of Streamflow under Climate Change in the Zambezi River Basin of Southern Africa" Water 13, no. 21: 3114. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213114

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