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Article

Optimal Water Quality Sensor Placement by Accounting for Possible Contamination Events in Water Distribution Networks

Department of Civil Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si 17104, Korea
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Academic Editor: Avi Ostfeld
Water 2021, 13(15), 1999; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13151999
Received: 9 June 2021 / Revised: 16 July 2021 / Accepted: 18 July 2021 / Published: 21 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Contamination Event Detection in Water-Distribution Systems)
Contamination in water distribution networks (WDNs) can occur at any time and location. One protection measure in WDNs is the placement of water quality sensors (WQSs) to detect contamination and provide information for locating the potential contamination source. The placement of WQSs in WDNs must be optimally planned. Therefore, a robust sensor-placement strategy (SPS) is vital. The SPS should have clear objectives regarding what needs to be achieved by the sensor configuration. Here, the objectives of the SPS were set to cover the contamination event stages of detection, consumption, and source localization. As contamination events occur in any form of intrusion, at any location and time, the objectives had to be tested against many possible scenarios, and they needed to reach a fair value considering all scenarios. In this study, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was selected as the optimizer. The SPS was further reinforced using a databasing method to improve its computational efficiency. The performance of the proposed method was examined by comparing it with a benchmark SPS example and applying it to DMA-sized, real WDNs. The proposed optimization approach improved the overall fitness of the configuration by 23.1% and showed a stable placement behavior with the increase in sensors. View Full-Text
Keywords: contamination; particle swarm optimization; sensor placement; water distribution network contamination; particle swarm optimization; sensor placement; water distribution network
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marlim, M.S.; Kang, D. Optimal Water Quality Sensor Placement by Accounting for Possible Contamination Events in Water Distribution Networks. Water 2021, 13, 1999. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13151999

AMA Style

Marlim MS, Kang D. Optimal Water Quality Sensor Placement by Accounting for Possible Contamination Events in Water Distribution Networks. Water. 2021; 13(15):1999. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13151999

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marlim, Malvin S., and Doosun Kang. 2021. "Optimal Water Quality Sensor Placement by Accounting for Possible Contamination Events in Water Distribution Networks" Water 13, no. 15: 1999. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13151999

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