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Open AccessArticle

Integrated Water Resources Management in Federations: The Examples of Brazil and Switzerland

1
Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of São Paulo, Boituva 18550-000, Brazil
2
Institute of Geography and Sustainability and Interdisciplinary Centre for Mountain Research, Geopolis building, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(7), 1914; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071914
Received: 21 May 2020 / Revised: 23 June 2020 / Accepted: 2 July 2020 / Published: 4 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
International water institutions worldwide consider integrated water resources management (IWRM) to be the most sustainable way to manage water. Governments have modified their legal and institutional framework in order to apply integrated water management tools in the river basin. Institutional challenges are common in federations due to complex power sharing at national and subnational levels. This article discusses the implementation of the hegemonic model of IWRM in federations, based on a review of the literature for two different federal countries: Brazil and Switzerland. Due to the centralized character of Brazilian federalism, adjustments made in recent decades aimed to adapt the water management model through a hegemonic approach of participation and decentralization, shaped by international experiences and institutions. Some challenges concern vertical interplay, concerning coordination between levels and effective implementation of decentralization and participation. In contrast, Switzerland has a non-hegemonic model of water management, which is varied and fragmented throughout the country. As management is decided and applied locally, the main challenge concerns horizontal interplay, with regionalization and coordination of water uses. View Full-Text
Keywords: federalism; water management; river basin; participation federalism; water management; river basin; participation
MDPI and ACS Style

Miranda, G.M.; Reynard, E. Integrated Water Resources Management in Federations: The Examples of Brazil and Switzerland. Water 2020, 12, 1914. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071914

AMA Style

Miranda GM, Reynard E. Integrated Water Resources Management in Federations: The Examples of Brazil and Switzerland. Water. 2020; 12(7):1914. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071914

Chicago/Turabian Style

Miranda, Graziele M.; Reynard, Emmanuel. 2020. "Integrated Water Resources Management in Federations: The Examples of Brazil and Switzerland" Water 12, no. 7: 1914. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071914

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