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Article

Historical Evolution of Sources and Pollution Levels of Heavy Metals in the Sediment of the Shuanglong Reservoir, China

1
School of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049, China
2
School of geography science, Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu 210046, China
3
School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(7), 1855; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071855
Received: 10 June 2020 / Revised: 20 June 2020 / Accepted: 25 June 2020 / Published: 28 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
In this study, the concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Hg, and Pb) and Pb isotope in a sediment core from the Shuanglong reservoir, Southwestern China, were investigated. Based on the constant rate of supply (CRS) model, the age span of a 60 cm sediment sample was determined to range from the years 1944 to 2015. Combined with chronology and heavy metal content, the evolution of the sources and pollution levels of heavy metals showed a changing trend composed of various stages. The sources of heavy metals transitioned from natural origins in 1944–1964 to industrial origins in 1965–2004. The subsequent reduction in heavy metal content was mainly due to the vigorous implementation of environmental protection policies from 2005 to 2012. In recent years (2013–2015), the heavy metal content has increased due to frequent human activity. Principal component analysis (PCA), correlation analysis, and the coefficient of variation (CV) analysis indicated that Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and As were derived from natural processes, Pb mainly came from automobile manufacturing, and Hg was mainly from industrial sources. The values of the geo-accumulation index (Ig), single pollution index (Pi), and single potential ecological risk index (Er) showed that the contamination of Hg and Pb was slight to moderate. Moreover, the values of the potential ecological risk index (RI), pollution load index (PLI), and Nemerow index (PN) indicated that the Shuanglong reservoir is under low ecological risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: typical water-supply reservoir; heavy metals; sediment sources; pollution evaluation typical water-supply reservoir; heavy metals; sediment sources; pollution evaluation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, Z.; Wang, Y.; Teng, H.; Yang, H.; Liu, A.; Li, M.; Niu, X. Historical Evolution of Sources and Pollution Levels of Heavy Metals in the Sediment of the Shuanglong Reservoir, China. Water 2020, 12, 1855. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071855

AMA Style

Zhou Z, Wang Y, Teng H, Yang H, Liu A, Li M, Niu X. Historical Evolution of Sources and Pollution Levels of Heavy Metals in the Sediment of the Shuanglong Reservoir, China. Water. 2020; 12(7):1855. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071855

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhou, Zike, Yongping Wang, Haowei Teng, Hao Yang, Aiju Liu, Menghong Li, and Xiaoyin Niu. 2020. "Historical Evolution of Sources and Pollution Levels of Heavy Metals in the Sediment of the Shuanglong Reservoir, China" Water 12, no. 7: 1855. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071855

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