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Open AccessArticle

Calibration Procedure for Water Distribution Systems: Comparison among Hydraulic Models

1
Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Piazza Università 5, 39100 Bolzano, Italy
2
Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(5), 1421; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051421
Received: 8 April 2020 / Revised: 6 May 2020 / Accepted: 14 May 2020 / Published: 16 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
Proper hydraulic simulation models, which are fundamental to analyse a water distribution system, require a calibration procedure. This paper proposes a multi-objective procedure to calibrate water demands and pipe roughness distribution in the context of an ill-posed problem, where the number of measurements is smaller than the number of variables. The proposed methodology consists of a two-steps procedure based on a genetic algorithm. Firstly, several runs of the calibrator are performed and the corresponding pressure and flow-rates values are averaged to overcome the non-uniqueness of the solutions problem. Secondly, the final calibrated model is achieved using the calibrator with the average values of the previous step as the reference condition. Therefore, the procedure enables to obtain physically based hydraulic parameters. Moreover, several hydraulic models are investigated to assess their performance on this optimisation procedure. The considered models are based either on concentrated at nodes or distributed along pipes demands approach, but also either on demand driven or pressure driven approach. Results show the reliability of the final calibrated model in the context of the ill-posed problem. Moreover, it is observed the overall better performance of the pressure driven approach with distributed demand in scarce pressure condition. View Full-Text
Keywords: water distribution systems; calibration; hydraulic modelling; genetic algorithms water distribution systems; calibration; hydraulic modelling; genetic algorithms
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Zanfei, A.; Menapace, A.; Santopietro, S.; Righetti, M. Calibration Procedure for Water Distribution Systems: Comparison among Hydraulic Models. Water 2020, 12, 1421.

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