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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Submergence and Eutrophication on the Trait’s Performance of Wedelia Trilobata over Its Congener Native Wedelia Chinensis

1
School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
2
Department of Plant Production and Technologies, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technologies, Nigde Omer Halisdemir University, Nigde 51200, Turkey
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(4), 934; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12040934 (registering DOI)
Received: 20 January 2020 / Revised: 17 March 2020 / Accepted: 23 March 2020 / Published: 26 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Engineering and Wastewater Treatment)
Climate change and artificial disturbance may lead to increased submergence and eutrophication near a riparian zone and the shift of terrestrial plants into a riparian zone. In this study, the responses of terrestrial invasive Wedelia trilobata (WT) and congener native Wedelia chinensis (WC) plants were examined under submergence and eutrophication. A greenhouse experiment was conducted in which ramets of WT and WC were investigated under two levels of submergence (S1 and S2) and three levels of nutrients (N1, N2 and N3) along with two cultures (mono and mixed). Submergence (S) did not affect the morphological traits of both the species but nutrients (N), culture (C) and their interaction, along with submergence, had a significant effect on the morphological traits of both the species. The growth of WC under high submergence and high nutrients was decreased compared with low nutrients (N1, N2) but WT maintained its growth in monoculture. In mixed culture, low submergence (S1) and low nutrients (N1, N2) made WC more dominant but high submergence (S2) and high nutrients (N3) made WT more successful than WC due to its high phenotypic plasticity and negative effect of competition intensity. It was concluded that both species survive and grow well under submergence and eutrophication, but high submergence and eutrophication provide better conditions for WT to grow well. View Full-Text
Keywords: submergence; eutrophication; invasive-native competition; growth rate; morphological traits submergence; eutrophication; invasive-native competition; growth rate; morphological traits
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Azeem, A.; Sun, J.; Javed, Q.; Jabran, K.; Du, D. The Effect of Submergence and Eutrophication on the Trait’s Performance of Wedelia Trilobata over Its Congener Native Wedelia Chinensis. Water 2020, 12, 934.

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