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Article

Total Maximum Allocated Load of Chemical Oxygen Demand Near Qinhuangdao in Bohai Sea: Model and Field Observations

1
College of Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
2
College of Marine Ecology and Environment, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China
3
The Lyell Centre for Earth and Marine Science and Technology, Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK
4
The Eighth Geological Brigade, Hebei Geological Prospecting Bureau, Qinhuangdao 066001, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(4), 1141; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041141
Received: 17 March 2020 / Revised: 11 April 2020 / Accepted: 14 April 2020 / Published: 16 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Aquatic Systems—Quality and Contamination)
Total maximum allocated load (TMAL) is the maximum sum total of all the pollutant loading a water body can carry without surpassing the water quality criterion, which is dependent on hydrodynamics and water quality conditions. A coupled hydrodynamic and water quality model combined with field observation was used to study pollutant transport and TMAL for water environment management in Qinhuangdao (QHD) sea in the Bohai Sea in northeastern China for the first time. Temporal and spatial variations of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration were investigated based on MIKE suite (Danish Hydraulic Institute, Hørsholm, Denmark). A systematic optimization approach of adjusting the upstream pollutant emission load was used to calculate TMAL derived from the predicted COD concentration. The pollutant emission load, TMAL, and pollutant reduction of Luanhe River were the largest due to the massive runoff, which was identified as the most influential driving factor for water environmental capacity and total carrying capacity of COD. The correlation analysis and Spearman coefficient indicate strong links between TMAL and forcing factors such as runoff, kinetic energy, and pollutant emission load. A comparison of total carrying capacity in 2011 and 2013 confirms that the upstream pollutant control scheme is an effective strategy to improve water quality along the river and coast. Although, the present model results suggest that a monitoring system could provide more efficient total capacity control. The outcome of this study establishes the theoretical foundation for coastal water environment management strategy in this region and worldwide. View Full-Text
Keywords: water environmental capacity; total maximum allocated load; chemical oxygen demand; water quality model; water environment management water environmental capacity; total maximum allocated load; chemical oxygen demand; water quality model; water environment management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dong, Z.; Kuang, C.; Gu, J.; Zou, Q.; Zhang, J.; Liu, H.; Zhu, L. Total Maximum Allocated Load of Chemical Oxygen Demand Near Qinhuangdao in Bohai Sea: Model and Field Observations. Water 2020, 12, 1141. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041141

AMA Style

Dong Z, Kuang C, Gu J, Zou Q, Zhang J, Liu H, Zhu L. Total Maximum Allocated Load of Chemical Oxygen Demand Near Qinhuangdao in Bohai Sea: Model and Field Observations. Water. 2020; 12(4):1141. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041141

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dong, Zhichao; Kuang, Cuiping; Gu, Jie; Zou, Qingping; Zhang, Jiabo; Liu, Huixin; Zhu, Lei. 2020. "Total Maximum Allocated Load of Chemical Oxygen Demand Near Qinhuangdao in Bohai Sea: Model and Field Observations" Water 12, no. 4: 1141. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041141

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