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Open AccessArticle

Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) Events and Water Response in A Patagonian Fjord

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maine, 5711 Boardman Hall, Orono, ME 04469, USA
2
Centro i~mar, Universidad de Los Lagos, Casilla 557, Puerto Montt 4030000, Chile
3
Centro de Investigación Oceanográfica COPAS Sur-Austral, Campus Concepción, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4030000, Chile
4
Wastewater Administration, Portland Water District, 225 Douglas Street, Portland, ME 04102, USA
5
Centro de Investigación Oceanográfica COPAS Sur-Austral, Departamento de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4030000, Chile
6
Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
7
Instituto Milenio de Oceanografía (IMO-Chile), Universidad de Concepción, P.O. Box 1313 Concepción 3, Concepción 4030000, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(1), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010248
Received: 3 December 2019 / Revised: 26 December 2019 / Accepted: 28 December 2019 / Published: 16 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Extreme Climate Events on Lake Ecosystems)
As a result of climate change, the frequency of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF) is increasing in Chilean Patagonia. Yet, the impacts of the flood events on the physics and biology of fjords is still unknown. Current velocities, density, in-situ zooplankton samples, and volume backscatter (Sv) derived from an acoustic profiler were used to explore the response of circulation and zooplankton abundance in a Patagonian fjord to GLOF events in 2010 and 2014. Maximum Sv was found both during the GLOFs and in late winter to early spring of 2010 and the fall and summer of 2014. The increase in Sv in late winter and spring of 2010 corresponded to multiple zooplankton species found from in-situ net sampling. In addition, diel vertical migrations were found during this seasonal increase both qualitatively and in a spectral analysis. Concurrently with zooplankton increases, wind forcing produced a deepening of the pycnocline. Zooplankton abundance peaked in the fjord when the pycnocline depth deepened due to wind forcing and throughout the entire spring season, indicating that mixing conditions could favor secondary production. These results were corroborated by the 2014 data, which indicate that weather events in the region impact both fjord physics and ecology. View Full-Text
Keywords: zooplankton; GLOF; volume backscatter; Chilean Patagonia; diel vertical migration; sediment cascades zooplankton; GLOF; volume backscatter; Chilean Patagonia; diel vertical migration; sediment cascades
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Ross, L.; Pérez-Santos, I.; Parady, B.; Castro, L.; Valle-Levinson, A.; Schneider, W. Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) Events and Water Response in A Patagonian Fjord. Water 2020, 12, 248.

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