Next Article in Journal
Optimization and Analysis of Zeolite Augmented Electrocoagulation Process in the Reduction of High-Strength Ammonia in Saline Landfill Leachate
Previous Article in Journal
Implementing the Water Framework Directive and Tackling Diffuse Pollution from Agriculture: Lessons from England and Scotland
Open AccessArticle

Assessing Anthropogenic Impacts on Chemical and Biochemical Oxygen Demand in Different Spatial Scales with Bayesian Networks

by Jing Xu 1,2, Guangqiu Jin 1,2,*, Yuming Mo 1,2, Hongwu Tang 1,2 and Ling Li 3
1
State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resource and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, China
2
College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, China
3
School of Engineering, Westlake University, Hangzhou 310024, Zhejiang, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(1), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010246 (registering DOI)
Received: 24 December 2019 / Revised: 10 January 2020 / Accepted: 11 January 2020 / Published: 15 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
In order to protect the water environment in seriously polluted basins, the impacts of anthropogenic activities (sewage outfalls and land use) on water quality should be assessed. The Bayesian network (BN) provides a convenient way to model these complex processes. In this study, anthropogenic impacts on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) were evaluated in the Huaihe River basin (HRB) considering dry and wet seasons and different spatial scales. The results showed that anthropogenic activities had the most significant impacts on COD and BOD at the catchment scale. In dry seasons, sewage outfalls played an important role in organic pollution. Farmland became the most important source in wet seasons although it had a “sink” process in dry seasons. Intensive human activities in urban made significant contributions to increased COD levels. Grassland had a negative relationship with organic pollution, especially in dry seasons. Therefore, governments should implement strategies to control organic matters transported from urban and farmland regions. Increasing the efficiency of wastewater treatments and the percentage of grassland in the riparian zone could improve water quality. These results can enhance understanding of anthropogenic impacts on water quality and contribute to efficient management for river basins. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemical oxygen demand (COD); biochemical oxygen demand (BOD); anthropogenic activities; spatial scales; Bayesian networks chemical oxygen demand (COD); biochemical oxygen demand (BOD); anthropogenic activities; spatial scales; Bayesian networks
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, J.; Jin, G.; Mo, Y.; Tang, H.; Li, L. Assessing Anthropogenic Impacts on Chemical and Biochemical Oxygen Demand in Different Spatial Scales with Bayesian Networks. Water 2020, 12, 246.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop