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Scenarios of Nutrient-Related Solute Loading and Transport Fate from Different Land Catchments and Coasts into the Baltic Sea

1
Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 10044 Stockholm, Sweden
2
Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(7), 1407; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071407
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 29 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract

This study uses controlled numerical experimentation to comparatively simulate and investigate solute transport and concentration responses and patterns in the Baltic Sea for various solute releases from the land through two different coastal cases. These cases are the Swedish Kalmar County coast and the Polish coast of the Vistula River outlet. For equivalent solute releases, the coastal flow conditions and their interactions with main marine currents determine the local coastal solute spreading, while the overall spreading over the Baltic Sea is similar for the two coastal cases, despite their large local differences. For nutrient-proportional solute release scenarios, the highly-populated Vistula catchment yields much greater total, but smaller per-capita nutrient impacts, in the Baltic Sea than the Kalmar County catchment. To be as low as from the Vistula catchment, the per-capita nutrient contribution from Kalmar County would have to be reduced much more than required on average per Swedish inhabitant by the Baltic Sea Action Plan. This highlights an unfairness issue in the per-capita distribution of nutrient load allowance among the Baltic countries, which needs to be considered and handled in further research and international efforts aimed to combat the Baltic Sea eutrophication. View Full-Text
Keywords: solute transport; Baltic Sea; nutrient loads; coastal concentrations; marine concentrations; Baltic Sea Action Plan; FVCOM simulations solute transport; Baltic Sea; nutrient loads; coastal concentrations; marine concentrations; Baltic Sea Action Plan; FVCOM simulations
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Chen, Y.; Cvetkovic, V.; Destouni, G. Scenarios of Nutrient-Related Solute Loading and Transport Fate from Different Land Catchments and Coasts into the Baltic Sea. Water 2019, 11, 1407.

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