Flow Control in Culverts: A Performance Comparison between Inlet and Outlet Control
AbstractCulverts, as an essential part of drainage networks worldwide, provide an efficient solution for flowing waters to cross man-made barriers including roads. Existing structures can be many years old and changes in rainfall patterns due to global warming might not have been considered in their original design. While correctly designed culverts can effectively drain water during high-intensity rainfall events, poorly designed or outdated structures could cause upstream flooding resulting in costly damage and losses. Hydraulic improvements to prepare existing culverts for greater discharge rates could be a favorable alternative to rebuilding every failing structure. Modern design guidelines calculate the performance for inlet and outlet controlled flows on the basis of established hydraulic theories. After calculating the headwater levels for both flow controls, the inferior one is then chosen, based on the assumption that the culvert will operate in its least efficient state. Flow improvements could be made by enforcing the better performing option. Outlet control can be ensured by raising the tailwater levels as high as the outlet thereby utilizing the entire cross-sectional area of the culvert. It was found that, in some cases, an enforced outlet control enables culverts to perform better than operation under inlet control. However, only smooth and short culverts with high losses at the inlet were identified as benefiting from this approach and many existing structures could be improved by better inlet designs. View Full-Text
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Jaeger, R.; Tondera, K.; Pather, S.; Porter, M.; Jacobs, C.; Tindale, N. Flow Control in Culverts: A Performance Comparison between Inlet and Outlet Control. Water 2019, 11, 1408.
Jaeger R, Tondera K, Pather S, Porter M, Jacobs C, Tindale N. Flow Control in Culverts: A Performance Comparison between Inlet and Outlet Control. Water. 2019; 11(7):1408.Chicago/Turabian Style
Jaeger, Rick; Tondera, Katharina; Pather, Selvan; Porter, Mark; Jacobs, Carolyn; Tindale, Neil. 2019. "Flow Control in Culverts: A Performance Comparison between Inlet and Outlet Control." Water 11, no. 7: 1408.