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Assessing the Agricultural Drainage Water with Water Quality Indices in the El-Salam Canal Mega Project, Egypt

1
Environmental Engineering Department, Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology, (E-JUST), P.O. Box 179, New Borg Al-Arab City, 21934 Alexandria, Egypt
2
Irrigation and Hydraulics Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, 31511 El-Gharbia, Egypt
3
Dean of School of Energy Resources, Environment and Chemical & Petrochemical Engineering, Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology, 21934 Alexandria, Egypt
4
Environmental Health Department, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, 21526 Alexandria, Egypt
5
Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, 71515 Assiut, Egypt
6
Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Taif University, Taif 26571, Saudi Arabia
7
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Environment and Society, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8552, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(5), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051013
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
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Abstract

The water quality index (WQI) is considered one of the most promising methods for the classification of water quality (WQ), which also contributes to water resource management. This study adopted the irrigation WQ index (IWQI) and an analogous index based on a fuzzy logic approach, namely, the fuzzy logic water reuse index (FWRI) to assess the water quality in the El-Salam canal project in Egypt where agriculture drainage water (ADW) is expected to be reused for irrigation. Simulated WQ data using a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model indicated that the WQ deteriorated towards the downstream of the canal due to the polluted water discharged from canal feeders (e.g., the El-Serw and Bahr Hadous drains). The comparison of the FWRI and IWQI indices showed that the FWRI was more sensitive to variations in the WQ parameters compared to the IWQI. In contrast, the Z-test indicated that the indices have different statistical properties. Moreover, a chi-square test (X2) illustrated that the FWRI and IWQI values can both reasonably explain the current situation. However, the FWRI was more relevant to the official classification than the IWQI. Overall, the FWRI proved its capability and accuracy for the assessment of water quality in the El-Salam canal. View Full-Text
Keywords: agricultural drainage water; El-Salam Canal; fuzzy logic water reuse index; MIKE 11; water quality index agricultural drainage water; El-Salam Canal; fuzzy logic water reuse index; MIKE 11; water quality index
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Assar, W.; Ibrahim, M.G.; Mahmod, W.; Fujii, M. Assessing the Agricultural Drainage Water with Water Quality Indices in the El-Salam Canal Mega Project, Egypt. Water 2019, 11, 1013.

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