Next Article in Journal
Assessing the Agricultural Drainage Water with Water Quality Indices in the El-Salam Canal Mega Project, Egypt
Next Article in Special Issue
Effects of Short-Term Uncertainties on the Revenue Estimation of PPP Sewage Treatment Projects
Previous Article in Journal
MILP for Optimizing Water Allocation and Reservoir Location: A Case Study for the Mach√°ngara River Basin, Ecuador
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Performance Simulation and Assessment of an Appropriate Wastewater Treatment Technology in a Densely Populated Growing City in a Developing Country: A Case Study in Vientiane, Laos

1
Department of Water Supply, Ministry of Public Works and Transport of Lao PDR. Lanxang Avenue, Vientiane 4107, Laos
2
Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University, 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8529, Hiroshima, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(5), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051012
Received: 31 March 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Operation and Economics of Wastewater Treatment Plant)
  |  
PDF [2509 KB, uploaded 15 May 2019]
  |  

Abstract

The fast-growing population in Vientiane, the capital of Laos, has resulted in increasing domestic wastewater generation, which directly impacts the urban water environment due to the lack of a suitable wastewater treatment system. This study aims to assess six wastewater treatment alternatives based on two technologies—trickling filter and activated sludge—used for on-site, decentralized, and centralized wastewater treatment systems to support decision-making for selecting the most suitable and practical alternative for wastewater treatment in Vientiane. To determine the most appropriate treatment system, the wastewater treatment process simulation with BioWin and the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method are applied to assess the removal efficiencies for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total suspended solids (TSS), as well as to rank the six wastewater treatment technologies based on the following four environmental criteria: (1) land requirement, (2) electricity use, (3) sludge production, and (4) CO2 emissions. The BioWin results illustrate that the capacity of each alternative is similar in terms of domestic wastewater treatment efficiency, while differing in terms of environmental impacts. In addition, the alternative ranking shows that a centralized wastewater treatment system with a trickling-filter process is more suitable than on-site and decentralized wastewater treatment systems based on their environmental impacts. This finding provides evidence for decision-makers to select a suitable alternative for wastewater treatment in order to promote access to safe sanitation and sustainable urban wastewater management in Vientiane, Laos. View Full-Text
Keywords: wastewater treatment; BioWin; TOPSIS; environmental impact; Vientiane wastewater treatment; BioWin; TOPSIS; environmental impact; Vientiane
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Khattiyavong, C.; Lee, H.S. Performance Simulation and Assessment of an Appropriate Wastewater Treatment Technology in a Densely Populated Growing City in a Developing Country: A Case Study in Vientiane, Laos. Water 2019, 11, 1012.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top