Next Article in Journal
The Impact of Reservoirs on Runoff Under Climate Change: A Case of Nierji Reservoir in China
Next Article in Special Issue
Assessing Water Shortage through a Balance Model among Transfers, Groundwater, Desalination, Wastewater Reuse, and Water Demands (SE Spain)
Previous Article in Journal
The Effect of Flooding on Evaporation and the Groundwater Table for a Salt-Crusted Soil
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effect of Water Table Depth on Soybean Water Use, Growth, and Yield Parameters
Open AccessArticle

Comparative Analysis of Granular and Membrane Filters for Rainwater Treatment

Department of Civil Engineering, Federal Technological University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR 81280-340, Brazil
Laboratory of Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(5), 1004;
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Water Management and Reuse)
The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of rainwater treatment using two types of filters: one with filtration materials (gravel, sand, and anthracite) and the other employing membranes. In both cases, the quality of the rainwater after passing through the filter met the standards required by NBR 15527:2007 (Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (ABNT)) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for non-potable uses according to the parameters pH, temperature, turbidity, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, alkalinity, and calcium hardness. The results obtained were also compared with Directive 2914/2011 of the Brazilian Ministry of Health, which deals with water potability, and with Resolution 357/2005 of CONAMA (Brazilian National Council for the Environment), which is applied to surface water bodies, especially rivers, and establishes the possibility of direct contact of the water with human skin. It was concluded that the rainwater obtained from both filters could be used for non-potable uses, such as toilet flushing, garden irrigation, and sidewalk cleaning, as well as for direct-contact activities, such as bathing and washing clothes. View Full-Text
Keywords: water conservation; rainwater use; rainwater treatment; filters water conservation; rainwater use; rainwater treatment; filters
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Teixeira, C.A.; Ghisi, E. Comparative Analysis of Granular and Membrane Filters for Rainwater Treatment. Water 2019, 11, 1004.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop