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Special Issue "Innovative Water Management and Reuse"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Use and Scarcity".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Kenneth M. Persson

Lunds Universitet, Department of Water Resources Engineering, Lund, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +46462229470
Interests: water management; water quality; water reuse; water planning; membrane technology; water supply and sanitation
Guest Editor
Dr. Alfredo González-Pérez

1 Membrane Biophysics Group, Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark
2 Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Technology and Society, Malmö University, Nordenskiöldsgatan 1, Malmö, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Interests: advanced materials; soft matter; biophysics; membranes, water quality; environmental remediation; emerging pollutants; monitoring sensors; advanced disinfection techniques; water security and IoT

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hydrologically, water on Earth is always recycled and, in many cases, water is reused due to the flow in the watershed. Planned reuse of water to increase the available water resources of a city or a region may be more controversial, even if the uses are beneficial and the water stress of the region decreases. Mature treatment methods, such as membrane technology and advanced oxidation, are available to ensure water quality. Established online monitoring methods to assess microbial and chemical water quality have proven their efficiency. Still, public confidence in water reuse is lacking. This Special Issue of Water will focus on how water reuse in society can be fortified without jeopardizing the safety and security of the water supply, including non-potable and potable uses.

Using wastewater as a resource and its potential resue at different levels in agriculture, urban mining, or drinking water; the impact of the coming IoT in our wastewater utilities, that in some years will be ubiquitous in our smart cities; the security issues associated with the public acceptance of water from unconvencional resources; and the development of future wastewater and water reuse policies, are just a few of the possible topics to the discussed and developed.

We welcome advanced and innovative wastewater management articles, as well as water reuse papers in the areas of health, social, policy and environmental issues, performance and quality control.

Prof. Kenneth M. Persson
Dr. Alfredo Gonzalez-Perez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Wastewater
  • Water reuse
  • Water quality
  • Wastewater policy
  • Water planning
  • Water security

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Wastewater Treatment and Water Reuse in Spain. Current Situation and Perspectives
Water 2019, 11(8), 1551; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081551
Received: 15 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 23 July 2019 / Published: 26 July 2019
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Abstract
The issues of wastewater treatment and the reuse of water are of great importance, especially in areas where the shortage of conventional resources is a structural problem, as it is in the case of Spain. Wastewater reuse is a valid mechanism to avoid [...] Read more.
The issues of wastewater treatment and the reuse of water are of great importance, especially in areas where the shortage of conventional resources is a structural problem, as it is in the case of Spain. Wastewater reuse is a valid mechanism to avoid problems derived from droughts and water scarcity. It allows access to water resources in areas with water restrictions and to prevent futures scenarios, due to it being expected that water consumption will double by 2050 over the world. Thus, the likelihood that this unconventional, strategic resource would become scarce is unquestionable, particularly in cases where water planning and exploitation systems prioritize the preservation, protection, and improvement of water quality, as well as the sustainable and efficient use of natural resources. This paper shows how wastewater treatment and reuse are linked, as the reuse of wastewater is associated with a previous regeneration, and both of them are essential tools for maximizing environmental outcomes, as called for in the European Union Directives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Water Management and Reuse)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing Water Shortage through a Balance Model among Transfers, Groundwater, Desalination, Wastewater Reuse, and Water Demands (SE Spain)
Water 2019, 11(5), 1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051009
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently, water demands are increasing notoriously, spreading the pressure on available water resources around the world in both quantity and quality. Similarly, the expected reduction of natural water inputs, due to climate change, depicts a new level of uncertainty. Specifically, Southeast Spain presents [...] Read more.
Currently, water demands are increasing notoriously, spreading the pressure on available water resources around the world in both quantity and quality. Similarly, the expected reduction of natural water inputs, due to climate change, depicts a new level of uncertainty. Specifically, Southeast Spain presents water scarcity due to its aridity—irregular and scarce precipitation and high evapotranspiration rates—combined with the competition between several water demands: environment, agricultural dynamics, urban-tourist activities, and industry. The study area of this work is the most relevant functional urban area of Alicante province (SE Spain), where the administration of water management is carried out by a range of authorities at different levels as the consequence of a complex historical development of water governance schemes: at the national, regional, and local levels. This study analyzes 21 municipalities and proposes a conceptual model which was developed by including different origins of water inputs—surface resources, groundwater, desalination, wastewater reuse, or interbasin transfers—and water demands with information obtained from 16 different sources. Our main results denote a relevant water deficit of 72.6 hm3/year even when one of the greatest rates of desalinated water and reused wastewater in Europe are identified here. This negative balance entails restrictions in urban development and agricultural growth. Thus, presented results are noteworthy for the water policy makers and planning authorities, by balancing the demand for water among various end users and providing a way for understanding water distribution in a context of scarcity and increasing demand, which will become one of the most challenging tasks in the 21st century. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Water Management and Reuse)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis of Granular and Membrane Filters for Rainwater Treatment
Water 2019, 11(5), 1004; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051004
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of rainwater treatment using two types of filters: one with filtration materials (gravel, sand, and anthracite) and the other employing membranes. In both cases, the quality of the rainwater after passing through the [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of rainwater treatment using two types of filters: one with filtration materials (gravel, sand, and anthracite) and the other employing membranes. In both cases, the quality of the rainwater after passing through the filter met the standards required by NBR 15527:2007 (Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (ABNT)) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for non-potable uses according to the parameters pH, temperature, turbidity, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, alkalinity, and calcium hardness. The results obtained were also compared with Directive 2914/2011 of the Brazilian Ministry of Health, which deals with water potability, and with Resolution 357/2005 of CONAMA (Brazilian National Council for the Environment), which is applied to surface water bodies, especially rivers, and establishes the possibility of direct contact of the water with human skin. It was concluded that the rainwater obtained from both filters could be used for non-potable uses, such as toilet flushing, garden irrigation, and sidewalk cleaning, as well as for direct-contact activities, such as bathing and washing clothes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Water Management and Reuse)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Water Table Depth on Soybean Water Use, Growth, and Yield Parameters
Water 2019, 11(5), 931; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050931
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 22 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 April 2019 / Published: 2 May 2019
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Abstract
Water table contribution to plant water use is a significant element in improving water use efficiency (WUE) for agricultural water management. In this study, lysimeter experiments were conducted in a controlled greenhouse environment to investigate the response of soybean water uptake and growth [...] Read more.
Water table contribution to plant water use is a significant element in improving water use efficiency (WUE) for agricultural water management. In this study, lysimeter experiments were conducted in a controlled greenhouse environment to investigate the response of soybean water uptake and growth parameters under four different water table depths (WTD) (30, 50, 70, and 90 cm). Soybean crop water use, WUE, and root distribution under the different WTD were examined. For 30, 50, 70, and 90 cm of WTD treatments, the average water table contributions were 89, 83, 79, and 72%; the grain yields were 15.1, 10.5, 14.1, and 17.2 g/lys.; and the WUEs were 0.22, 0.18, 0.25, and 0.31 g/lys./cm, respectively. Further analysis of the root mass and proportional distribution among the different soil layers illustrated that the lysimeters with 70 and 90 cm WTD had greater root mass with higher root distribution at 40–75 cm of the soil layer. The results indicated that 70 and 90 cm of constant WTD can yield higher grain yield and biomasses with greater WUE and better root distribution than the irrigated or shallow WTD treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Water Management and Reuse)
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Open AccessArticle
Water Disinfection by Immobilized Photosensitizers
Water 2019, 11(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010026
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 16 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 24 December 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1976 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fresh water shortage has become a global problem. A partial solution for this problem is the use of treated and disinfected wastewater for irrigation. However, most existing wastewater disinfection methods are based on the use of aggressive chemicals or power-consuming physical processes. Photodynamic [...] Read more.
Fresh water shortage has become a global problem. A partial solution for this problem is the use of treated and disinfected wastewater for irrigation. However, most existing wastewater disinfection methods are based on the use of aggressive chemicals or power-consuming physical processes. Photodynamic eradication of waterborne bacteria by immobilized photosensitizers may be a good alternative to conventional methods. In the present work, the photosensitizers Rose Bengal sodium salt, Rose Bengal lactone, methylene blue, and hematoporphyrin were immobilized in polyethylene or polypropylene using a “green” method of co-extrusion, without addition of any chemicals, yielding polymeric strips and beads containing the photosensitizers. The antibacterial efficiency of these immobilized photosensitizers was tested against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli in batch and continuous regimes upon illumination with a white luminescent lamp. All examined photosensitizers demonstrated a good ability to decrease the bacterial concentration, up to their total eradication. Immobilized photosensitizers are proposed for batch or continuous disinfection of wastewater after secondary treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Water Management and Reuse)
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Open AccessArticle
Combining Chemical Flocculation and Disc Filtration with Managed Aquifer Recharge
Water 2018, 10(12), 1854; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121854
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
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Abstract
Natural organic matter (NOM) is a growing concern for artificial recharge plants. In the future, it is predicted that warmer climates and more precipitation will cause higher NOM production in lakes and more NOM transport to lakes. This, coupled with increasing drinking water [...] Read more.
Natural organic matter (NOM) is a growing concern for artificial recharge plants. In the future, it is predicted that warmer climates and more precipitation will cause higher NOM production in lakes and more NOM transport to lakes. This, coupled with increasing drinking water demand due to the population increase, is pushing operators of water treatment plants (WTPs) to find new ways to treat water. In this study, the possibility of reducing the organic load in infiltration basins through a compact pre-treatment technique utilizing microsieves, or disc filters, instead of bulky sedimentation basins and rapid sand filters after chemical flocculation to separate flocs, was investigated. The experiments were conducted using a laboratory-scale flocculator, bench-scale disc filters (10 µm and 40 µm), FeCl3, an anionic synthetic polymer, and water from Lake Vomb, a lake in southern Sweden. Raw water was flocculated using FeCl3 and the polymer, and the filtrated samples were analyzed by measuring UV–VIS absorbance, total organic carbon (TOC), and permeate volume. The results when using 10-µm and 40-µm disc filters demonstrate that it is possible to reduce NOM (by approximately 50%) and separate flocs from raw water. The experiments also highlight the importance of sufficient flocculation times and the use of appropriate polymer dosage to achieve higher permeate volumes and avoid residual polymers in the effluent. In this paper, the possibility of using this technique as a standalone treatment step or as a pre-treatment step in order to manage the aquifer recharge is demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Water Management and Reuse)
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Open AccessArticle
Uptake Fluoride from Water by Starch Stabilized Layered Double Hydroxides
Water 2018, 10(6), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060745
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1741 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel starch stabilized Mg/Al layered Double hydroxides (S-LDHs) was prepared in a facile approach and its fluoride ion removal performance was developed. Characterization of S-LDHs was employed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and particle size distribution. The adsorption [...] Read more.
A novel starch stabilized Mg/Al layered Double hydroxides (S-LDHs) was prepared in a facile approach and its fluoride ion removal performance was developed. Characterization of S-LDHs was employed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and particle size distribution. The adsorption property was studied through the assessment of the adsorption isotherms, kinetic models, thermal dynamics, and pH influence. The result shows that a low loading of starch of 10 mg onto layered double hydroxides (LDHs) could obviously improve the fluoride removal rate. The S-LDHs had three times higher the adsorption capacity to fluoride than that of Mg/Al LDHs to fluoride. The particle size was smaller and the particle size distribution was narrower for S-LDHs than that for Mg/Al LDHs. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted well with the experimental data. In thermodynamic parameters, the enthalpy (ΔH0) value was 35.63 kJ·mol−1 and the entropy (ΔS0) value was 0.0806 kJ·mol−1K−1. The values of ΔG0 were negative, implying the adsorption process is spontaneous. S-LDHs reveals stable adsorption property in a wide pH range from 3 to 9. The mechanism for fluoride adsorption on S-LDHs included surface adsorption and interaction ion exchange. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Water Management and Reuse)
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Open AccessArticle
A Study on the Comparison of Corrosion in Water Supply Pipes Due to Tap Water (TW) and Reclaimed Water (RW)
Water 2018, 10(4), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040496
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (25547 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Among a wide variety of alternative water resources, reclaimed water from waste-water has drawn much attention, as it is considered a stable water resource to be substituted for agricultural, industrial, recreational, and public water. This study aimed to compare and evaluate the effects [...] Read more.
Among a wide variety of alternative water resources, reclaimed water from waste-water has drawn much attention, as it is considered a stable water resource to be substituted for agricultural, industrial, recreational, and public water. This study aimed to compare and evaluate the effects of tap water and reclaimed water on the corrosion of the inner surface of pipes. The investigated pipes included GSP (Galvanized Steel Pipe), CIP (Cast Iron Pipe), STSP (Stainless Steel Pipe), and PVCP (Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe). Assessment of corrosion impact on the different materials of pipes was conducted by analyzing the corrosion accelerators and inhibitors related to the characteristics of reclaimed water. Reclaimed water with higher ionic content showed a faster corrosion rate than tap water because corrosion accelerators have more of an effect on pipe corrosion than do corrosion inhibitors. In terms of pipe materials, the corrosion rate was fastest in CIP, followed by GSP, and STSP; PVCP exhibited no electrochemical corrosion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Water Management and Reuse)
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Open AccessArticle
Removal of Chloramphenicol from Aqueous Solution Using Low-Cost Activated Carbon Prepared from Typha orientalis
Water 2018, 10(4), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040351
Received: 18 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1662 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Low-cost and efficient activated carbon (AC) was prepared from Typha orientalis via phosphoric acid activation for chloramphenicol (CAP) removal. The adsorption capacity and mechanisms of CAP on AC were investigated. The physicochemical properties of AC were characterized by an N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm, [...] Read more.
Low-cost and efficient activated carbon (AC) was prepared from Typha orientalis via phosphoric acid activation for chloramphenicol (CAP) removal. The adsorption capacity and mechanisms of CAP on AC were investigated. The physicochemical properties of AC were characterized by an N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm, elemental analysis, Boehm’s titration and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effects of experimental parameters were investigated to study the adsorption behaviors of CAP on AC, including contact time, initial concentration, ionic strength, and initial pH. AC had a micro-mesoporous structure with a relatively large surface area (794.8 m2/g). The respective contents of acidic and basic functional groups on AC were 2.078 and 0.995 mmol/g. The adsorption kinetic that was well described by a pseudo-second-order rate model implied a chemical controlling step. The adsorption isotherm was well fitted with the Freundlich isotherm model, and the maximum CAP adsorption capacity was 0.424 mmol/g. The ionic strength and pH had minimal effects on CAP adsorption. The dominant CAP adsorption mechanisms on AC were evaluated and attributed to π-π electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interaction, hydrophobic interaction, in conjunction with hydrogen-bonding interaction. Additionally, AC exhibited an efficient adsorption performance of CAP in a realistic water environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Water Management and Reuse)
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