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Water 2019, 11(4), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040723

The Effectiveness of Exfiltration Technology to Support Sponge City Objectives

1
School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
2
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada
3
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 36100, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 7 April 2019
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Abstract

Urban stormwater management is essential to improve the management of floodwaters in municipalities in urban areas. However, relying on sponge city options for site planning in an attempt to decrease the impacts of flooding is challenging due to the magnitude of flooding in urban China. The merits of exfiltration technology being used in Canada are described as having significant potential; this technology encourages passage from the stormwater pipe down to a second, lower pipe, to facilitate exfiltration to the vadose zone and, ultimately, to replenish groundwater. For example, for a small urban catchment, stormwater runoff from a 2-h long, 5-yearly storm, is demonstrated as being able to exfiltrate approximately 53% of the stormwater. Overall, the potential exists to exfiltrate stormwater from the lower pipe and it is estimated that 71% of the water entering the storm sewer is exfiltrated to the vadose zone, for a small catchment. The exfiltration pipe technology increases groundwater recharge which provides an opportunity to help manage subsidence in China. However, attention must be paid to the quality of the infiltrating water since, as true for any sponge city initiative, poor quality infiltrating water may deteriorate the quality of the groundwater. View Full-Text
Keywords: LID; sponge city; exfiltration; sewer system; exfiltration pipe; groundwater recharge; subsidence; Beijing; SWMM; water quality LID; sponge city; exfiltration; sewer system; exfiltration pipe; groundwater recharge; subsidence; Beijing; SWMM; water quality
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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McBean, E.; Huang, G.; Yang, A.; Cheng, H.; Wu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Dai, Z.; Fu, H.; Bhatti, M. The Effectiveness of Exfiltration Technology to Support Sponge City Objectives. Water 2019, 11, 723.

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