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Water 2019, 11(2), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020288

Deciphering Interannual Temperature Variations in Springs of the Campania Region (Italy)

1
Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta, Italy
2
Department of Materials, Environmental Sciences and Urban Planning, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche 12, 60131 Ancona, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 December 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 3 February 2019 / Published: 7 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insights on the Water–Energy–Food Nexus)
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Abstract

While the effects of climate change on the thermal regimes of surface waters have already been assessed by many studies, there is still a lack of knowledge on the effects on groundwater temperature and on the effects on spring water quality. The online available dataset of the Campania Environmental Agency (ARPAC) was analysed via spatial, temporal and statistical analyses to assess the impact of climate variability on 118 springs, monitored over the period from 2002 to 2017. The meteorological dataset was used to compute average annual precipitation and atmospheric temperatures. Spring water temperatures, electrical conductivity, pH, chloride and fluoride were selected to determine if climate variations had a significant impact on spring water quality. This study shows that the Campania region has experienced an increase of spring water temperatures of approximately 2.0 °C during the monitored period. This is well-linked with the increase of atmospheric minimum temperatures, but not with average and maximum atmospheric temperatures. The spring water temperature increases were not reflected by a concomitant change of the analysed water quality parameters. The latter were linked to the precipitation trend and other local factors, like spring altitude and the presence of geothermal heat fluxes. View Full-Text
Keywords: regional aquifer; springs; temperature; climate change; decadal trend regional aquifer; springs; temperature; climate change; decadal trend
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Mastrocicco, M.; Busico, G.; Colombani, N. Deciphering Interannual Temperature Variations in Springs of the Campania Region (Italy). Water 2019, 11, 288.

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