Next Article in Journal
Numerical Research on the Resistance Reduction of Air Intake
Previous Article in Journal
Optimizing the Formation of DMAs in a Water Distribution Network through Advanced Modelling
Previous Article in Special Issue
Comparison of Hydrodynamics Simulated by 1D, 2D and 3D Models Focusing on Bed Shear Stresses
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Water 2019, 11(2), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020279

Hydraulic Modeling and Evaluation Equations for the Incipient Motion of Sandbags for Levee Breach Closure Operations

1
Irrigation and Hydraulics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt
2
Civil department, German University in Cairo, New Cairo City 13611, Egypt
3
School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
4
Institute of Structural Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Cracow University of Technology, 31-155 Krakow, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 27 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
Full-Text   |   PDF [3626 KB, uploaded 18 February 2019]   |  
  |   Review Reports

Abstract

Open channel levees are used extensively in hydraulic and environmental engineering applications to protect the surrounding area from inundation. However, levees may fail to produce an unsteady flow that is inherently three dimensional. Such a failure may lead to a destructive change in morphology of the river channel and valley. To avoid such a situation arising, hydraulic laboratory modeling was performed on an open channel levee breach model capturing velocity, in x, y and z plans, at selected locations in the breach. Sandbags of various shapes and sizes are tested for incipient motion by the breach flow. We found that a prism sandbag has a better hydrodynamic characteristic and more stability than spherical bags with the same weight. Experimental results are then used to evaluate existing empirical equations and to develop more accurate equations for predicting critical flow velocity at the initial stage of sandbag motion. Results showed the superior predictions a few of the equations could be considered with an uncertainty range of ±10%. These equations explained the initial failed attempts of the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) for breach closure of the case study, and confirmed the experimental results are simulating the case study of breach closure. View Full-Text
Keywords: breach closure; levee breach; channel side flow; sandbags; open channel flow; critical velocity; incipient motion breach closure; levee breach; channel side flow; sandbags; open channel flow; critical velocity; incipient motion
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sattar, A.M.A.; Bonakdari, H.; Gharabaghi, B.; Radecki-Pawlik, A. Hydraulic Modeling and Evaluation Equations for the Incipient Motion of Sandbags for Levee Breach Closure Operations. Water 2019, 11, 279.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top