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A Modeling Approach for Assessing Groundwater Resources of a Large Coral Island under Future Climate and Population Conditions: Gan Island, Maldives

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado State University, 1372 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1372, USA
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Water 2019, 11(10), 1963; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11101963
Received: 31 July 2019 / Revised: 10 September 2019 / Accepted: 11 September 2019 / Published: 20 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Modelling and Assessment for Small Oceanic Islands)
This study assesses the future groundwater supply of a large coral island, Gan Island, Republic of Maldives, under influences of rainfall patterns, sea level rise, and population growth. The method described in this paper can be used to estimate the future groundwater supply of other coral islands. Gan is the largest inhabited island (598 ha) of the Republic of Maldives with a population of approximately 4500. An accurate estimate of groundwater supply in the coming decades is important for island water security measures. To quantify future groundwater volumes in Gan, a three-dimensional, density-dependent groundwater and solute transport model was created using the SUTRA (Saturated Unsaturated Transport) modeling code. The Gan model was tested against observed groundwater salinity concentrations and then run for the 2012–2050 period to compare scenarios of future rainfall (from General Circulation Models), varying rates of population growth (i.e., groundwater pumping), and sea level rise. Results indicate that the total fresh groundwater volume increases approximately 20% if only future rainfall patterns are considered. If moderate pumping is included (2% annual population growth rate), the volume increases only by 13%; with aggressive pumping (9% annual population growth rate), the volume decreases by 24%. Sea level rise and associated shoreline recession leads to an additional 15–20% decrease in lens thickness and lens volume. Results can be used to make decisions about water resource management on Gan and other large coral islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Methods used herein can be applied to any coral island to explore future groundwater security. View Full-Text
Keywords: coral islands; freshwater lens; sea-level rise; numerical modeling coral islands; freshwater lens; sea-level rise; numerical modeling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Deng, C.; Bailey, R. A Modeling Approach for Assessing Groundwater Resources of a Large Coral Island under Future Climate and Population Conditions: Gan Island, Maldives. Water 2019, 11, 1963. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11101963

AMA Style

Deng C, Bailey R. A Modeling Approach for Assessing Groundwater Resources of a Large Coral Island under Future Climate and Population Conditions: Gan Island, Maldives. Water. 2019; 11(10):1963. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11101963

Chicago/Turabian Style

Deng, Chenda; Bailey, Ryan. 2019. "A Modeling Approach for Assessing Groundwater Resources of a Large Coral Island under Future Climate and Population Conditions: Gan Island, Maldives" Water 11, no. 10: 1963. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11101963

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