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Open AccessArticle

The Application of Different Biological Remediation Strategies to PCDDs/PCDFs Contaminated Urban Sediments

1
Department of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz, Poland
2
European Regional Centre for Ecohydrology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Tylna 3, 90-364 Lodz, Poland
3
Department of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz, Poland
4
Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation—State Research Institute, Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland
5
Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiológicas de Galicia (IIAG), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Santiago de Compostela 15706, Spain
6
Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Teresy 8, 91-348 Lodz, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(10), 1962; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11101962
Received: 5 July 2019 / Revised: 7 September 2019 / Accepted: 16 September 2019 / Published: 20 September 2019
Our aim was to assess the efficacy of four different bioremediation strategies applied to soil treated with urban sediments for alleviating soil phytotoxicity (examined using Lepidium sativum), by removing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and mitigating the toxic effect on plants by the applied sediment: (1) Natural attenuation, (2) phytoremediation with the use of two plants Tagetes patula L. and Festuca arundinacea, (3) rhizobacterial inoculation with Massilia niastensis p87 and Streptomyces costaricanus RP92 strains, (4) rhizobacteria-assisted phytoremediation with both plants and strains. The applied sediment had a positive influence on L. sativum growth (90% higher than in the unamended soil), mostly due to its high content of nutrients, mainly Ca and Fe, which immobilize pollutants. The positive effect of sediments continued for up to 10-week duration of the experiment; however, the rhizobacterial inoculated samples were characterized by higher growth of L. sativum. The application of rhizobacteria-assisted phytoremediation further increased the growth of L. sativum, and was also found to improve the efficiency of PCDD/PCDF removal, resulting in a maximum 44% reduction of its content. This strategy also alleviated the negative impact of urban sediments on T. patula and F. arundinacea biomass, and had a beneficial effect on protein and chlorophyll content in the studied plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban sediments; PCDDs/PCDFs; rhizobacterial inoculants; bioremediation; phytoremediation urban sediments; PCDDs/PCDFs; rhizobacterial inoculants; bioremediation; phytoremediation
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Urbaniak, M.; Wyrwicka, A.; Siebielec, G.; Siebielec, S.; Kidd, P.; Zieliński, M. The Application of Different Biological Remediation Strategies to PCDDs/PCDFs Contaminated Urban Sediments. Water 2019, 11, 1962.

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