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The Contribution of Coniferous Canopy to the Molecular Diversity of Dissolved Organic Matter in Rainfall

1
Institute of Decision Science for a Sustainable Society, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 811-2415, Japan
2
Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, Nagano 390-8621, Japan
3
Graduate School of Bioresources and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan
4
Hyogo Prefectural Technology Center for Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Hyogo 671-2515, Japan
5
School of Human Science and Environment, University of Hyogo, Hyogo 670-0092, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(1), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010167
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Abstract

Rainwater interacts with tree canopies in forest ecosystems, which greatly influence its quality. However, little information is available regarding how tree canopies influence dissolved organic matter (DOM) in rainwater. To examine this, we collected bulk deposition (rainfall) and throughfall in a conifer (Chamaecyparis obtusa) plantation, western Japan, during a rain event, and analyzed their DOM molecular compositions using ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The dissolved organic carbon flux and the number of DOM molecular species detected were approximately seven times and three times higher in throughfall than in rainfall, respectively. We found that the average proportion of molecular species shared between five sample replicates was larger in throughfall (69%) than in rainfall (50%). Nonmetric multidimensional scaling revealed that the molecular species were significantly differentiated between throughfall and rainfall, and the dissimilarity among the replicates was much smaller in throughfall. This indicates that the quality of DOM in rainwater became spatially homogeneous due to contact with tree canopies. The number of lignin-like molecules was larger than those of any other biomolecular compounds in throughfall and seven times larger than in rainfall, suggesting that many of plant-derived DOM molecules were dissolved into rainwater. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomolecules; biogeochemical cycle; molecular diversity; temperate forest; water conservation function biomolecules; biogeochemical cycle; molecular diversity; temperate forest; water conservation function
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ide, J.; Makita, N.; Jeong, S.; Yamase, K.; Ohashi, M. The Contribution of Coniferous Canopy to the Molecular Diversity of Dissolved Organic Matter in Rainfall. Water 2019, 11, 167.

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