Next Article in Journal
Effect of Environmental Conditions and Morphometric Parameters on Surface Water Temperature in Polish Lakes
Next Article in Special Issue
Simulation of Urban Water Resources in Xiamen Based on a WEAP Model
Previous Article in Journal
Modified Septic Tank: Innovative Onsite Wastewater Treatment System
Previous Article in Special Issue
Optimizing Re-Chlorination Injection Points for Water Supply Networks Using Harmony Search Algorithm
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2018, 10(5), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10050579

Towards Development of an Optimization Model to Identify Contamination Source in a Water Distribution Network

1
Department of Electrical Engineering/French South African Institute of Technology (F’SATI), Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
2
École Supérieure d’Ingénieurs en Électrotechnique et Électronique, Cité Descartes, 2 Boulevard Blaise Pascal, 93160 Noisy-le-Grand, Paris, France
3
Department of Chemical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 April 2018 / Published: 29 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Networks Management: New Perspectives)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1046 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

Protection of the water system is paramount due to the negative consequences of contaminated water on the public health. Water resources are one of the critical infrastructures that must be preserved from deliberate and accidental attacks. Water qualities are examined at the treatment plant. However, its quality can substantially be contaminated during transportation from the plant to the consumers’ taps. Contamination in water distribution networks (WDNs) is a danger that can have severe consequences on public health as well as an economic and social instability. Water distribution networks are immensely susceptible to deliberate or accidental attacks due to the complex nature of the system. Hence, contamination source identification (CSI) is a topical issue in water distribution systems that require immediate attention of researchers in order to protect mankind from the adverse effect of consuming contaminated water. Usually, a contaminant event can be detected by the water quality monitoring sensors or the contaminant warning system (CWS) installed on the network. Nevertheless, how to derive the source of the contamination from the collected information is a difficult task that must be tackled in order to evaluate the spread of the contamination and for immediate remedial strategies. In the past two decades, considerable efforts and advancement have been made by researchers applying various techniques in order to locate the source of the contamination in WDNs. Each of the techniques has certain limitations and applicability as reported in the literature. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the existing techniques with emphasis on their importance and technical challenges. Despite a series of investigations in this domain, the field is yet to be unified. Hence, open research areas are still available to explore. Consequently, improvement on the existing techniques is necessary and hereby suggested. More importantly, practical application of these techniques offer a major research gap that must be addressed. View Full-Text
Keywords: water distribution networks; contamination source identification; contamination warning system water distribution networks; contamination source identification; contamination warning system
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Adedoja, O.S.; Hamam, Y.; Khalaf, B.; Sadiku, R. Towards Development of an Optimization Model to Identify Contamination Source in a Water Distribution Network. Water 2018, 10, 579.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top