Next Article in Journal
Pluvial Flood Risk Assessment Tool (PFRA) for Rainwater Management and Adaptation to Climate Change in Newly Urbanised Areas
Next Article in Special Issue
Trends and Consumption Structures of China’s Blue and Grey Water Footprint
Previous Article in Journal
A Semi Risk-Based Approach for Managing Urban Drainage Systems under Extreme Rainfall
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Comprehensive Forecast of Urban Water-Energy Demand Based on a Neural Network Model

1
State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing 210029, China
2
The College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(4), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040385
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality: A Component of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus)
  |  
PDF [5471 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]
  |  

Abstract

Water-energy nexus has been a popular topic of rese arch in recent years. The relationships between the demand for water resources and energy are intense and closely connected in urban areas. The primary, secondary, and tertiary industry gross domestic product (GDP), the total population, the urban population, annual precipitation, agricultural and industrial water consumption, tap water supply, the total discharge of industrial wastewater, the daily sewage treatment capacity, total and domestic electricity consumption, and the consumption of coal in industrial enterprises above the designed size were chosen as input indicators. A feedforward artificial neural network model (ANN) based on a back-propagation algorithm with two hidden layers was constructed to combine urban water resources with energy demand. This model used historical data from 1991 to 2016 from Wuxi City, eastern China. Furthermore, a multiple linear regression model (MLR) was introduced for comparison with the ANN. The results show the following: (a) The mean relative error values of the forecast and historical urban water-energy demands are 1.58 % and 2.71%, respectively; (b) The predicted water-energy demand value for 2020 is 4.843 billion cubic meters and 47.561 million tons of standard coal equivalent; (c) The predicted water-energy demand value in the year 2030 is 5.887 billion cubic meters and 60.355 million tons of standard coal equivalent; (d) Compared with the MLR, the ANN performed better in fitting training data, which achieved a more satisfactory accuracy and may provide a reference for urban water-energy supply planning decisions. View Full-Text
Keywords: water-energy nexus; water demand forecast; energy demand forecast; artificial neural network model; multiple linear regression water-energy nexus; water demand forecast; energy demand forecast; artificial neural network model; multiple linear regression
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Yin, Z.; Jia, B.; Wu, S.; Dai, J.; Tang, D. Comprehensive Forecast of Urban Water-Energy Demand Based on a Neural Network Model. Water 2018, 10, 385.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top