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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Governance Strategies for Improving Flood Resilience in the Face of Climate Change

Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Princetonlaan 8a, 3584 CB Utrecht, The Netherlands
Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bukowska 19, 60-809 Poznań, Poland
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegrafenberg A 31, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
Utrecht Centre for Water, Oceans and Sustainability Law, Utrecht University School of Law, Newtonlaan 201, 3584 BH Utrecht, The Netherlands
Research Group Environment & Society, Sociology Department, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Antwerp, Sint-Jacobsstraat 2, S.M.380, 2000 Antwerp, Belgium
Paris School of Planning, Lab’Urba, Paris Est University, 14-20 Bd Newton, 77454 Marne La Vallée CEDEX 2, France
Institute of Sociology, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Szamarzewskiego 89c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland
Law Unit, Luleå University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden
Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University, The Burroughs, Hendon, London NW4 4BT, UK
Institute for Environmental and Energy Law, KU Leuven, Oude Markt 13-bus 5500, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
Sweco Netherlands B.V., De Holle Bilt 22, 3743 HM De Bilt, The Netherlands
Institute for Management Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 141, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(11), 1595;
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Challenges of Water Management and Governance in Cities)
Flooding is the most common of all natural disasters and accounts for large numbers of casualties and a high amount of economic damage worldwide. To be ‘flood resilient’, countries should have sufficient capacity to resist, the capacity to absorb and recover, and the capacity to transform and adapt. Based on international comparative research, we conclude that six key governance strategies will enhance ‘flood resilience’ and will secure the necessary capacities. These strategies pertain to: (i) the diversification of flood risk management approaches; (ii) the alignment of flood risk management approaches to overcome fragmentation; (iii) the involvement, cooperation, and alignment of both public and private actors in flood risk management; (iv) the presence of adequate formal rules that balance legal certainty and flexibility; (v) the assurance of sufficient financial and other types of resources; (vi) the adoption of normative principles that adequately deal with distributional effects. These governance strategies appear to be relevant across different physical and institutional contexts. The findings may also hold valuable lessons for the governance of climate adaptation more generally. View Full-Text
Keywords: flood risk management; flood resilience; governance strategies; climate change flood risk management; flood resilience; governance strategies; climate change
MDPI and ACS Style

Driessen, P.P.J.; Hegger, D.L.T.; Kundzewicz, Z.W.; Van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.; Crabbé, A.; Larrue, C.; Matczak, P.; Pettersson, M.; Priest, S.; Suykens, C.; Raadgever, G.T.; Wiering, M. Governance Strategies for Improving Flood Resilience in the Face of Climate Change. Water 2018, 10, 1595.

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