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Open AccessArticle

On-Road Air Quality Associated with Traffic Composition and Street-Canyon Ventilation: Mobile Monitoring and CFD Modeling

1
School of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea
2
Center for Environment, Health and Welfare Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792, Korea
3
Center for Particulate Air Pollution and Health, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792, Korea
4
Department of Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
5
School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2018, 9(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9030092
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 24 February 2018 / Accepted: 24 February 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Urban Ventilation Assessment and Flow Modelling)
Mobile monitoring and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling are complementary methods to examine spatio-temporal variations of air pollutant concentrations at high resolutions in urban areas. We measured nitrogen oxides (NOx), black carbon (BC), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH), and particle number (PN) concentrations in a central business district using a mobile laboratory. The analysis of correlations between the measured concentrations and traffic volumes demonstrate that high emitting vehicles (HEVs) are deterministically responsible for poor air quality in the street canyon. The determination coefficient (R2) with the HEV traffic volume is the largest for the pPAH concentration (0.79). The measured NOx and pPAH concentrations at a signalized intersection are higher than those on a road between two intersections by 24% and 25%, respectively. The CFD modeling results reveal that the signalized intersection plays a role in increasing on-road concentrations due to accelerating and idling vehicles (i.e., emission process), but also plays a countervailing role in decreasing on-road concentrations due to lateral ventilation of emitted pollutants (i.e., dispersion process). It is suggested that the number of HEVs and street-canyon ventilation, especially near a signalized intersection, need to be controlled to mitigate poor air quality in a central business district of a megacity. View Full-Text
Keywords: on-road air quality; traffic composition; high emitting vehicles; street canyon; mobile laboratory; CFD model on-road air quality; traffic composition; high emitting vehicles; street canyon; mobile laboratory; CFD model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kwak, K.-H.; Woo, S.H.; Kim, K.H.; Lee, S.-B.; Bae, G.-N.; Ma, Y.-I.; Sunwoo, Y.; Baik, J.-J. On-Road Air Quality Associated with Traffic Composition and Street-Canyon Ventilation: Mobile Monitoring and CFD Modeling. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 92.

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