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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle

Analysis and Comparison of Shading Strategies to Increase Human Thermal Comfort in Urban Areas

1
Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
2
School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2018, 9(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9030091
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Design and City Microclimates)
With the expected increase in warmer conditions caused by climate change, heat-related illnesses are becoming a more pressing issue. One way that humans can protect themselves from this is to seek shade. The design of urban spaces can provide individuals with a variety of ways to obtain this shade. The objective of this study was to perform a detailed evaluation and comparison of three shading strategies that could be used in an urban environment: shade from a building, from a tree, and from an umbrella. This was done through using field measurements to calculate the impact of each strategy on a thermal comfort index (Comfort Formula (COMFA)) in two urban settings during sunny days of the summer of 2013 and 2014 in London, Canada. Building shade was found to be the most effective cooling strategy, followed by the tree strategy and the umbrella strategy. As expected, the main determinant of this ranking was a strategy’s ability to block incoming shortwave radiation. Further analysis indicated that changes in the convective loss of energy and in longwave radiation absorption had a smaller impact that caused variations in the strategy effectiveness between settings. This suggests that under non-sunny days, these rankings could change. View Full-Text
Keywords: cooling strategies; microclimate measurement; urban design; human thermal comfort; human health cooling strategies; microclimate measurement; urban design; human thermal comfort; human health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, I.; Voogt, J.A.; Gillespie, T.J. Analysis and Comparison of Shading Strategies to Increase Human Thermal Comfort in Urban Areas. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 91.

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