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Open AccessReview

The Teleconnection of the Tropical Atlantic to Indo-Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures on Inter-Annual to Centennial Time Scales: A Review of Recent Findings

1
Earth System Physics Section, Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34151, Italy
2
Center of Excellence for Climate Change Research/Department of Meteorology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
3
Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), Avd. Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain
4
Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6BB, UK
5
Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1565, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Agus Santoso
Atmosphere 2016, 7(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7020029
Received: 31 December 2015 / Revised: 27 January 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2016 / Published: 17 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue El Niño Southern Oscillation)
In this paper, the teleconnections from the tropical Atlantic to the Indo-Pacific region from inter-annual to centennial time scales will be reviewed. Identified teleconnections and hypotheses on mechanisms at work are reviewed and further explored in a century-long pacemaker coupled ocean-atmosphere simulation ensemble. There is a substantial impact of the tropical Atlantic on the Pacific region at inter-annual time scales. An Atlantic Niño (Niña) event leads to rising (sinking) motion in the Atlantic region, which is compensated by sinking (rising) motion in the central-western Pacific. The sinking (rising) motion in the central-western Pacific induces easterly (westerly) surface wind anomalies just to the west, which alter the thermocline. These perturbations propagate eastward as upwelling (downwelling) Kelvin-waves, where they increase the probability for a La Niña (El Niño) event. Moreover, tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies are also able to lead La Niña/El Niño development. At multidecadal time scales, a positive (negative) Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation leads to a cooling (warming) of the eastern Pacific and a warming (cooling) of the western Pacific and Indian Ocean regions. The physical mechanism for this impact is similar to that at inter-annual time scales. At centennial time scales, the Atlantic warming induces a substantial reduction of the eastern Pacific warming even under CO2 increase and to a strong subsurface cooling. View Full-Text
Keywords: teleconnections; ENSO predictability; Atlantic Niño; Atlantic multidecadal oscillation; pacific decadal variability teleconnections; ENSO predictability; Atlantic Niño; Atlantic multidecadal oscillation; pacific decadal variability
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Kucharski, F.; Parvin, A.; Rodriguez-Fonseca, B.; Farneti, R.; Martin-Rey, M.; Polo, I.; Mohino, E.; Losada, T.; Mechoso, C.R. The Teleconnection of the Tropical Atlantic to Indo-Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures on Inter-Annual to Centennial Time Scales: A Review of Recent Findings. Atmosphere 2016, 7, 29.

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