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Volume 7, January

Atmosphere, Volume 7, Issue 2 (February 2016) – 17 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Climate Preferences for Domestic and International Beach Holidays: A Case Study of Canadian Travelers
Atmosphere 2016, 7(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7020030 - 18 Feb 2016
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 2375
Abstract
Coastal tourism is the largest segment of global leisure tourism and it is firmly linked to the destination’s natural resources—with climatic resources chief among them. Through observations and survey responses of beach users, studies have evaluated climatic resources for coastal tourism by quantifying [...] Read more.
Coastal tourism is the largest segment of global leisure tourism and it is firmly linked to the destination’s natural resources—with climatic resources chief among them. Through observations and survey responses of beach users, studies have evaluated climatic resources for coastal tourism by quantifying optimal and unacceptable conditions. However, these studies have not taken into consideration that different forms of holidays (e.g., daytrips, short trips, main annual holiday, “once-in-a-lifetime” trip) may have varying degrees of resilience to climatic conditions. This is the first study to explore whether ideal and unacceptable climatic conditions vary between domestic and international tourists. Using an in situ survey, Canadian beach users traveling domestically (n = 359) and internationally (n = 120) were examined. Key findings include statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between the two sample groups for every climate variable, with the international sample more resilient to a broader range of weather conditions, including a greater acceptance for warm temperatures, longer rainfall durations, higher wind speeds, and greater cloud cover. This study adds further insight into the complexities of evaluating climate for tourism, with implications for the demand response of tourists to climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism Climatology)
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Open AccessReview
The Teleconnection of the Tropical Atlantic to Indo-Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures on Inter-Annual to Centennial Time Scales: A Review of Recent Findings
Atmosphere 2016, 7(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7020029 - 17 Feb 2016
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 4078
Abstract
In this paper, the teleconnections from the tropical Atlantic to the Indo-Pacific region from inter-annual to centennial time scales will be reviewed. Identified teleconnections and hypotheses on mechanisms at work are reviewed and further explored in a century-long pacemaker coupled ocean-atmosphere simulation ensemble. [...] Read more.
In this paper, the teleconnections from the tropical Atlantic to the Indo-Pacific region from inter-annual to centennial time scales will be reviewed. Identified teleconnections and hypotheses on mechanisms at work are reviewed and further explored in a century-long pacemaker coupled ocean-atmosphere simulation ensemble. There is a substantial impact of the tropical Atlantic on the Pacific region at inter-annual time scales. An Atlantic Niño (Niña) event leads to rising (sinking) motion in the Atlantic region, which is compensated by sinking (rising) motion in the central-western Pacific. The sinking (rising) motion in the central-western Pacific induces easterly (westerly) surface wind anomalies just to the west, which alter the thermocline. These perturbations propagate eastward as upwelling (downwelling) Kelvin-waves, where they increase the probability for a La Niña (El Niño) event. Moreover, tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies are also able to lead La Niña/El Niño development. At multidecadal time scales, a positive (negative) Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation leads to a cooling (warming) of the eastern Pacific and a warming (cooling) of the western Pacific and Indian Ocean regions. The physical mechanism for this impact is similar to that at inter-annual time scales. At centennial time scales, the Atlantic warming induces a substantial reduction of the eastern Pacific warming even under CO2 increase and to a strong subsurface cooling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue El Niño Southern Oscillation)
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Open AccessArticle
Sub-Seasonal Prediction of the Maritime Continent Rainfall of Wet-Dry Transitional Seasons in the NCEP Climate Forecast Version 2
Atmosphere 2016, 7(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7020028 - 15 Feb 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2245
Abstract
This study investigates the characteristics and prediction of the Maritime Continent (MC) rainfall for the transitional periods between wet and dry seasons. Several observational data sets and the output from the 45-day hindcast by the U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate [...] Read more.
This study investigates the characteristics and prediction of the Maritime Continent (MC) rainfall for the transitional periods between wet and dry seasons. Several observational data sets and the output from the 45-day hindcast by the U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) are used. Results show that the MC experiences a sudden transition from wet season to dry season (WTD) around the 27th pentad, and a gradual transition from dry season to wet season (DTW) around the 59th pentad. Correspondingly, the westerlies over the equatorial Indian Ocean, the easterlies over the equatorial Pacific Ocean, and the Australia High become weaker, contributing to weakening of the convergence over the MC. The subtropical western Pacific high intensifies and extends northeastward during the WTD. The Mascarene High becomes weaker, an anomalous anticyclonic circulation forms over the northeast of the Philippines, and an anomalous low-level convergence occurs over the western MC during the DTW. The NCEP CFSv2 captures the major features of rainfall and related atmospheric circulation when forecast lead time is less than three weeks for WTD and two weeks for DTW. The model predicts a weaker amplitude of the changes in rainfall and related atmospheric circulation for both WTD and DTW as lead time increases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Variable Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Surface Ozone Concentration and Its Relationship with UV Radiation, Meteorological Parameters and Radon on the Eastern Coast of the Baltic Sea
Atmosphere 2016, 7(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7020027 - 15 Feb 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2573
Abstract
Hourly and daily variations of ground-level ozone have been analyzed in relation to meteorological parameters, UVB radiation and radon near the Baltic Sea in Lithuania. An atypical situation with respect to wind domination was observed during the experiment: the wind from the continent [...] Read more.
Hourly and daily variations of ground-level ozone have been analyzed in relation to meteorological parameters, UVB radiation and radon near the Baltic Sea in Lithuania. An atypical situation with respect to wind domination was observed during the experiment: the wind from the continent was twice as frequent as the wind from the sea. The close correlation between ground-level ozone concentration and UVB radiation intensity was established. The vertical migration directions of ozone and radon were opposite and the negative correlation between these pollutants was observed. The diurnal course of ozone and radon and the influence of meteorological parameters (temperature, relative air humidity, wind speed and direction) on variation of these pollutants have been estimated. It was established that the wind direction domination during the experiment had a significant influence on the variation of ozone and radon concentrations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Interactions between Climate, Land Use and Vegetation Fire Occurrences in El Salvador
Atmosphere 2016, 7(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7020026 - 06 Feb 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5404
Abstract
Vegetation burning is a global environmental threat that results in local ecological, economic and social impacts but also has large-scale implications for global change. The burning is usually a result of interacting factors such as climate, land use and vegetation type. Despite its [...] Read more.
Vegetation burning is a global environmental threat that results in local ecological, economic and social impacts but also has large-scale implications for global change. The burning is usually a result of interacting factors such as climate, land use and vegetation type. Despite its importance as a factor shaping ecological, economic and social processes, countries highly vulnerable to climate change in Central America, such as El Salvador, lack an assessment of this complex relationship. In this study we rely on remotely sensed measures of the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI) and thermal anomaly detections by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to identify vegetation cover changes and fire occurrences. We also use land use data and rainfall observations derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data to determine the spatial and temporal variability and interactions of these factors. Our results indicate a highly marked seasonality of fire occurrence linked to the climatic variability with a peak of fire occurrences in 2004 and 2013. Low vegetation indices occurred in March–April, around two months after the driest period of the year (December–February), corresponding to months with high detection of fires. Spatially, 65.6% of the fires were recurrent and clustered in agriculture/cropland areas and within 1 km of roads (70%) and only a 4.7% of fires detected were associated with forests. Remaining forests in El Salvador deserve more attention due to underestimated consequences of forest fires. The identification of these clear patterns can be used as a baseline to better shape management of fire regimes and support decision making in this country. Recommendations resulting from this work include focusing on fire risk models and agriculture fires and long-term ecological and economic consequences of those. Furthermore, El Salvador will need to include agricultural fires in the contribution to national accounts emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biometeorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of ENSO on Regional Indian Summer Monsoon Precipitation—Local Atmospheric Influences or Remote Influence from Pacific
Atmosphere 2016, 7(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7020025 - 06 Feb 2016
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3561
Abstract
Using CMIP5 model outputs in different El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases, this work investigates the indicator that could be used as an Index to characterise regional Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) precipitation. Dividing the Indian subcontinent into five arbitrarily chosen regions, viz. Central North [...] Read more.
Using CMIP5 model outputs in different El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases, this work investigates the indicator that could be used as an Index to characterise regional Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) precipitation. Dividing the Indian subcontinent into five arbitrarily chosen regions, viz. Central North East (CNE) (18°N–31°N, 86°E–75°E), Hilly (H) (28°N–38°N, 85°E–70°E), North West (NW) (21°N–31°N, 79°E–67°E), North East (NE) (21°N–31°N, 86°E–97°E) and Southern India (S) (18°N–7°N, 73°E–85°E), local wind field and remote influences from the tropical Pacific are considered to improve understanding of regional monsoon rainfall. Results are also compared with observations/reanalysis data to pinpoint areas of shortcomings and agreements. Model results suggest that regional wind velocity, viz. meridional wind component (V) at 850 mb level (V850) and zonal component at 200 mb (U200) and 850 mb (U850) can yield better estimation of local precipitation in regions CNE, H and NW, agreeing well with earlier proposed monsoon Indices. Such observations are independent of different subcategories of ENSO phases and models show good correspondence with observations. Analyses with V at 200 mb (V200) indicate circulation of the upper branch of Hadley cells in regions CNE and S, though suggest the best agreement among models in comparison with other fields, but there are some deviations from observations, indicating a missing mechanism in the models. Using models, this study identified the best parameter in different regions that could be used for the regional monsoon Index, irrespective of various ENSO subcategories; for CNE it is the U200, for H it is U200 and U850, and for NW it is U850. The current analysis, however, fails to indicate anything clearly about the NE region. When focusing on the remote influence from the eastern Pacific region, it is found that atmospheric contribution to regional ISM precipitation fails to indicate consistent roles among models, but sea surface temperature suggests strong connection. However, remote influence from the Central Pacific is captured uniformly in models via zonal components of wind in the H and NW regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Variable Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Decreasing Aerosol Loading in the North American Monsoon Region
Atmosphere 2016, 7(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7020024 - 05 Feb 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2455
Abstract
We examine the spatio-temporal variability of aerosol loading in the recent decade (2005–2014) over the North American Monsoon (NAM) region. Emerging patterns are characterized using aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals from the NASA Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument along with a suite [...] Read more.
We examine the spatio-temporal variability of aerosol loading in the recent decade (2005–2014) over the North American Monsoon (NAM) region. Emerging patterns are characterized using aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals from the NASA Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument along with a suite of satellite retrievals of atmospheric and land-surface properties. We selected 20 aerosol hotspots and classified them into fire, anthropogenic, dust, and NAM alley clusters based on the dominant driver influencing aerosol variability. We then analyzed multivariate statistics of associated anomalies during pre-, monsoon, and post-monsoon periods. Our results show a decrease in aerosol loading for the entire NAM region, confirming previous reports of a declining AOD trend over the continental United States. This is evident during pre-monsoon and monsoon for fire and anthropogenic clusters, which are associated with a decrease in the lower and upper quartile of fire counts and carbon monoxide, respectively. The overall pattern is obfuscated in the NAM alley, especially during monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. While the NAM alley is mostly affected by monsoon precipitation, the frequent occurrence of dust storms in the area modulates this trend. We find that aerosol loading in the dust cluster is associated with observed vegetation index and has only slightly decreased in the recent decade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Composition Observations)
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Open AccessArticle
The Application of TAPM for Site Specific Wind Energy Forecasting
Atmosphere 2016, 7(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7020023 - 05 Feb 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2370
Abstract
The energy industry uses weather forecasts for determining future electricity demand variations due to the impact of weather, e.g., temperature and precipitation. However, as a greater component of electricity generation comes from intermittent renewable sources such as wind and solar, weather forecasting techniques [...] Read more.
The energy industry uses weather forecasts for determining future electricity demand variations due to the impact of weather, e.g., temperature and precipitation. However, as a greater component of electricity generation comes from intermittent renewable sources such as wind and solar, weather forecasting techniques need to now also focus on predicting renewable energy supply, which means adapting our prediction models to these site specific resources. This work assesses the performance of The Air Pollution Model (TAPM), and demonstrates that significant improvements can be made to only wind speed forecasts from a mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model. For this study, a wind farm site situated in North-west Tasmania, Australia was investigated. I present an analysis of the accuracy of hourly NWP and bias corrected wind speed forecasts over 12 months spanning 2005. This extensive time frame allows an in-depth analysis of various wind speed regimes of importance for wind-farm operation, as well as extreme weather risk scenarios. A further correction is made to the basic bias correction to improve the forecast accuracy further, that makes use of real-time wind-turbine data and a smoothing function to correct for timing-related issues. With full correction applied, a reduction in the error in the magnitude of the wind speed by as much as 50% for “hour ahead” forecasts specific to the wind-farm site has been obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Variable Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Changing Trends and Abrupt Features of Extreme Temperature in Mainland China from 1960 to 2010
Atmosphere 2016, 7(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7020022 - 02 Feb 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2257
Abstract
Studies based on the 10th (90th) percentiles as thresholds have been presented to assess moderate extremes in China and globally. However, there has been notably little research on the occurrences of high extremes of warm days and hot days (TX95p and TX99p) and [...] Read more.
Studies based on the 10th (90th) percentiles as thresholds have been presented to assess moderate extremes in China and globally. However, there has been notably little research on the occurrences of high extremes of warm days and hot days (TX95p and TX99p) and cold nights and very cold nights (TN05p and TN01p), based on the 95th and 99th (5th and 1st) percentiles of the daily maximum (minimum) temperature data at a certain station in the period 1971–2000, which have more direct impacts on society and the ecosystem. The trends analyses of cool nights or warm days are based upon the hypothesis that expects a linear trend and no abrupt change. However, abrupt changes in the climate, especially in extreme temperatures, have been pointed to as a major threat to ecosystem services. This study demonstrates that (1) the mean frequencies of TX95p and TX99p increased by 1.80 day/10 year and 0.62 day/10 year, respectively, and that those of TN05p and TN01p decreased by 3.18 day/10 year and 1.01 day/10 year, respectively, in mainland China. Additionally, the TX95p and TX99p increased significantly by 50.42% and 58.21%, respectively, while the TN05p and TN01p of all of the stations decreased significantly by 83.76% and 76.48%, respectively. Finally, (2) the TX95p and TX99p trends underwent abrupt changes in the 1990s or 2000s, but the trends of TN05p and TN01p experienced abrupt changes in the late 1970s and early 1980s. After the abrupt change points, the trend of warm and hot days increased more rapidly than before in most regions, but the trend of cold days and very cold days decreased more slowly than before in most regions, which indicates a greater risk of heat waves in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Variable Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
The Deep Physics Hidden within the Field Expressions of the Radiation Fields of Lightning Return Strokes
Atmosphere 2016, 7(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7020021 - 30 Jan 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2351 | Correction
Abstract
Based on the electromagnetic fields generated by a current pulse propagating from one point in space to another, a scenario that is frequently used to simulate return strokes in lightning flashes, it is shown that there is a deep physical connection between the [...] Read more.
Based on the electromagnetic fields generated by a current pulse propagating from one point in space to another, a scenario that is frequently used to simulate return strokes in lightning flashes, it is shown that there is a deep physical connection between the electromagnetic energy dissipated by the system, the time over which this energy is dissipated and the charge associated with the current. For a given current pulse, the product of the energy dissipated and the time over which this energy is dissipated, defined as action in this paper, depends on the length of the channel, or the path, through which the current pulse is propagating. As the length of the channel varies, the action plotted against the length of the channel exhibits a maximum value. The location of the maximum value depends on the ratio of the length of the channel to the characteristic length of the current pulse. The latter is defined as the product of the duration of the current pulse and the speed of propagation of the current pulse. The magnitude of this maximum depends on the charge associated with the current pulse. The results show that when the charge associated with the current pulse approaches the electronic charge, the value of this maximum reaches a value close to h/8π where h is the Plank constant. From this result, one can deduce that the time-energy uncertainty principle is the reason for the fact that the smallest charge that can be detected from the electromagnetic radiation is equal to the electronic charge. Since any system that generates electromagnetic radiation can be represented by a current pulse propagating from one point in space to another, the result is deemed valid for electromagnetic radiation fields in general. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Particulate Characteristics during a Haze Episode Based on Two Ceilometers with Different Wavelengths
Atmosphere 2016, 7(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7020020 - 29 Jan 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1616
Abstract
To investigate the particulate characteristics of a haze episode, data from two ceilometers with wavelengths of 532 nm and 910 nm, respectively, were studied intensively. By combining the data from the ceilometers with data from a sounding balloon, an automatic meteorological station, and [...] Read more.
To investigate the particulate characteristics of a haze episode, data from two ceilometers with wavelengths of 532 nm and 910 nm, respectively, were studied intensively. By combining the data from the ceilometers with data from a sounding balloon, an automatic meteorological station, and a Grimm 180 PM instrument, analyses of the haze process of a short haze event were performed. The results showed that the relatively calm weather conditions were favorable to the occurrence of the haze and that higher relative humidity had a great influence on visibility. The extinction profiles from the ceilometers reflected the existence of an inverted structure of the temperature profiles and demonstrated the extinction differences at two different wavelengths. Because extinction has a positive correlation with relative humidity, the effect of hygroscopic growth was analyzed at the two different wavelengths. As hygroscopic growth of the particles proceeded, the longer wavelength became more sensitive to the large particles, and vice versa. The hygroscopic growth factor and the Angstrom exponent showed a negative correlation, and the correlation coefficients at 532 nm and 910 nm were 0.54 and 0.86, respectively. The accumulation mode particles were more stable through time than the coarse mode particles, and the variation of the coarse mode particles coincided well with the variation of the Angstrom exponent from the two ceilometers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
ENSO-Related Precipitation and Its Statistical Relationship with the Walker Circulation Trend in CMIP5 AMIP Models
Atmosphere 2016, 7(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7020019 - 29 Jan 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2213
Abstract
Observational evidence shows that the Walker circulation (WC) in the tropical Pacific has strengthened in recent decades. In this study, we examine the WC trend for 1979–2005 and its relationship with the precipitation associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) using the [...] Read more.
Observational evidence shows that the Walker circulation (WC) in the tropical Pacific has strengthened in recent decades. In this study, we examine the WC trend for 1979–2005 and its relationship with the precipitation associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) using the sea surface temperature (SST)-constrained Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate models. All of the 29 models show a strengthening of the WC trend in response to an increase in the SST zonal gradient along the equator. Despite the same SST-constrained AMIP simulations, however, a large diversity is found among the CMIP5 climate models in the magnitude of the WC trend. The relationship between the WC trend and precipitation anomalies (PRCPAs) associated with ENSO (ENSO-related PRCPAs) shows that the longitudinal position of the ENSO-related PRCPAs in the western tropical Pacific is closely related to the magnitude of the WC trend. Specifically, it is found that the strengthening of the WC trend is large (small) in the CMIP5 AMIP simulations in which the ENSO-related PRCPAs are located relatively westward (eastward) in the western tropical Pacific. Therefore, the zonal shift of the ENSO-related precipitation in the western tropical Pacific, which is associated with the climatological mean precipitation in the tropical Pacific, could play an important role in modifying the WC trend in the CMIP5 climate models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue El Niño Southern Oscillation)
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Open AccessArticle
Solar Forecasting in a Challenging Insular Context
Atmosphere 2016, 7(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7020018 - 29 Jan 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2062
Abstract
This paper aims at assessing the accuracy of different solar forecasting methods in the case of an insular context. Two sites of La Réunion Island, Le Tampon and Saint-Pierre, are chosen to do the benchmarking exercise. Réunion Island is a tropical island with [...] Read more.
This paper aims at assessing the accuracy of different solar forecasting methods in the case of an insular context. Two sites of La Réunion Island, Le Tampon and Saint-Pierre, are chosen to do the benchmarking exercise. Réunion Island is a tropical island with a complex orography where cloud processes are mainly governed by local dynamics. As a consequence, Réunion Island exhibits numerous micro-climates. The two aforementioned sites are quite representative of the challenging character of solar forecasting in the case of a tropical island with complex orography. Hence, although distant from only 10 km, these two sites exhibit very different sky conditions. This work focuses on day-ahead and intra-day solar forecasting. Day-ahead solar forecasts are provided by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). This organization maintains and runs the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model named Integrated Forecast System (IFS). In this work, post-processing techniques are applied to refine the output of the IFS model for day-ahead forecasting. Statistical models like a recursive linear model or a nonlinear model such as an artificial neural network are used to produce the intra-day solar forecasts. It is shown that a combination of the IFS model and the neural network model further improves the accuracy of the forecasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Variable Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Carbon Sequestration and Carbon Markets for Tree-Based Intercropping Systems in Southern Quebec, Canada
Atmosphere 2016, 7(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7020017 - 28 Jan 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2868
Abstract
Since agriculture directly contributes to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, integrating trees into agricultural landscapes through agroforestry systems is a viable adaptive strategy for climate change mitigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the carbon (C) sequestration and financial benefits [...] Read more.
Since agriculture directly contributes to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, integrating trees into agricultural landscapes through agroforestry systems is a viable adaptive strategy for climate change mitigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the carbon (C) sequestration and financial benefits of C sequestration according to Quebec’s Cap-and-Trade System for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Allowances (C & T System) or the Système de plafonnement et d’échange de droits d’émission de gaz à effet de serre du Québec (SPEDE) program for two experimental 10-year-old tree-based intercropping (TBI) systems in southern Quebec, Canada. We estimated total C stored in the two TBI systems with hybrid poplar and hardwoods and adjacent non-TBI systems under agricultural production, considering soil, crop and crop roots, litterfall, tree and tree roots as C stocks. The C sequestration of the TBI and adjacent non-TBI systems were compared and the market value of the C payment was evaluated using the net present value (NPV) approach. The TBI systems had 33% to 36% more C storage than adjacent non-TBI systems. The financial benefits of C sequestration after 10 years of TBI practices amounted to of $2,259–$2,758 CAD ha−1 and $1,568–$1,913 CAD ha−1 for St. Edouard and St. Paulin sites, respectively. We conclude that valorizing the C sequestration of TBI systems could be an incentive to promote the establishment of TBI for the purpose of GHG mitigation in Quebec, Canada. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Carbon Sequestration and Climate: Present and Future)
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Open AccessArticle
Windblown Dust Deposition Forecasting and Spread of Contamination around Mine Tailings
Atmosphere 2016, 7(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7020016 - 28 Jan 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2602
Abstract
Wind erosion, transport and deposition of windblown dust from anthropogenic sources, such as mine tailings impoundments, can have significant effects on the surrounding environment. The lack of vegetation and the vertical protrusion of the mine tailings above the neighboring terrain make the tailings [...] Read more.
Wind erosion, transport and deposition of windblown dust from anthropogenic sources, such as mine tailings impoundments, can have significant effects on the surrounding environment. The lack of vegetation and the vertical protrusion of the mine tailings above the neighboring terrain make the tailings susceptible to wind erosion. Modeling the erosion, transport and deposition of particulate matter from mine tailings is a challenge for many reasons, including heterogeneity of the soil surface, vegetative canopy coverage, dynamic meteorological conditions and topographic influences. In this work, a previously developed Deposition Forecasting Model (DFM) that is specifically designed to model the transport of particulate matter from mine tailings impoundments is verified using dust collection and topsoil measurements. The DFM is initialized using data from an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The forecast deposition patterns are compared to dust collected by inverted-disc samplers and determined through gravimetric, chemical composition and lead isotopic analysis. The DFM is capable of predicting dust deposition patterns from the tailings impoundment to the surrounding area. The methodology and approach employed in this work can be generalized to other contaminated sites from which dust transport to the local environment can be assessed as a potential route for human exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Composition Observations)
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Open AccessReview
Statistical Modeling Approaches for PM10 Prediction in Urban Areas; A Review of 21st-Century Studies
Atmosphere 2016, 7(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7020015 - 26 Jan 2016
Cited by 54 | Viewed by 3915
Abstract
PM10 prediction has attracted special legislative and scientific attention due to its harmful effects on human health. Statistical techniques have the potential for high-accuracy PM10 prediction and accordingly, previous studies on statistical methods for temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal prediction of PM [...] Read more.
PM10 prediction has attracted special legislative and scientific attention due to its harmful effects on human health. Statistical techniques have the potential for high-accuracy PM10 prediction and accordingly, previous studies on statistical methods for temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal prediction of PM10 are reviewed and discussed in this paper. A review of previous studies demonstrates that Support Vector Machines, Artificial Neural Networks and hybrid techniques show promise for suitable temporal PM10 prediction. A review of the spatial predictions of PM10 shows that the LUR (Land Use Regression) approach has been successfully utilized for spatial prediction of PM10 in urban areas. Of the six introduced approaches for spatio-temporal prediction of PM10, only one approach is suitable for high-resolved prediction (Spatial resolution < 100 m; Temporal resolution ≤ 24 h). In this approach, based upon the LUR modeling method, short-term dynamic input variables are employed as explanatory variables alongside typical non-dynamic input variables in a non-linear modeling procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor and Outdoor Air Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimized Estimation of Surface Layer Characteristics from Profiling Measurements
Atmosphere 2016, 7(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7020014 - 22 Jan 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1830
Abstract
New sampling techniques such as tethered-balloon-based measurements or small unmanned aerial vehicles are capable of providing multiple profiles of the Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer (MASL) in a short time period. It is desirable to obtain surface fluxes from these measurements, especially when direct [...] Read more.
New sampling techniques such as tethered-balloon-based measurements or small unmanned aerial vehicles are capable of providing multiple profiles of the Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer (MASL) in a short time period. It is desirable to obtain surface fluxes from these measurements, especially when direct flux measurements are difficult to obtain. The profiling data is different from the traditional mean profiles obtained at two or more fixed levels in the surface layer from which surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat are derived based on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST). This research develops an improved method to derive surface fluxes and the corresponding MASL mean profiles of wind, temperature, and humidity with a least-squares optimization method using the profiling measurements. This approach allows the use of all available independent data. We use a weighted cost function based on the framework of MOST with the cost being optimized using a quasi-Newton method. This approach was applied to seven sets of data collected from the Monterey Bay. The derived fluxes and mean profiles show reasonable results. An empirical bias analysis is conducted using 1000 synthetic datasets to evaluate the robustness of the method. Full article
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