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Atmosphere, Volume 6, Issue 1 (January 2015) , Pages 1-163

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Open AccessArticle
Variations in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 in an Urban Area of the Sichuan Basin and Their Relation to Meteorological Factors
Atmosphere 2015, 6(1), 150-163; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos6010150 - 09 Jan 2015
Cited by 54 | Viewed by 4561
Abstract
Daily average monitoring data for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 and meteorological parameters at Chengdu from 2009 to 2011 are analyzed using statistical methods to replicate the effect of urban air pollution in Chengdu metropolitan region of the Sichuan Basin. [...] Read more.
Daily average monitoring data for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 and meteorological parameters at Chengdu from 2009 to 2011 are analyzed using statistical methods to replicate the effect of urban air pollution in Chengdu metropolitan region of the Sichuan Basin. The temporal distribution of, and correlation between, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 particles are analyzed. Additionally, the relationships between particulate matter (PM) and certain meteorological parameters are studied. The results show that variations in the average mass concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 generally have the same V-shaped distributions (except for April), with peak/trough values for PM average mass concentrations appearing in January/September, respectively. From 2009 to 2011, the inter-annual average mass concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 fall year on year. The correlation coefficients of daily concentrations of PM10 with PM2.5, PM10 with PM1.0, and PM2.5 with PM1.0 were high, reaching 0.91, 0.83 and 0.98, respectively. In addition, the average ratios of PM2.5/PM10, PM1.0/PM10 and PM1.0/PM2.5 were 85%, 78% and 92%, respectively. From this, fine PM is determined to be the principal pollutant in the Chengdu region. Except for averaged air pressure values, negative correlations exist between other meteorological parameters and PM. Temperature and air pressure influenced the transport and accumulation of PM by affecting convection. Winds promoted PM dispersion. Precipitation not only accelerated the deposition of wet PM, but also inhibited surface dust transport. There was an obvious correlation between PM and visibility; the most important cause of visibility degradation was due to the light extinction of aerosol particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sources, Formation and Impacts of Secondary Aerosol)
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Atmosphere in 2014
Atmosphere 2015, 6(1), 148-149; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos6010148 - 07 Jan 2015
Viewed by 1759
Abstract
The editors of Atmosphere would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2014:[...] Full article
Open AccessProject Report
Basic Concepts for Convection Parameterization in Weather Forecast and Climate Models: COST Action ES0905 Final Report
Atmosphere 2015, 6(1), 88-147; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos6010088 - 26 Dec 2014
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3527
Abstract
The research network “Basic Concepts for Convection Parameterization in Weather Forecast and Climate Models” was organized with European funding (COST Action ES0905) for the period of 2010–2014. Its extensive brainstorming suggests how the subgrid-scale parameterization problem in atmospheric modeling, especially for convection, can [...] Read more.
The research network “Basic Concepts for Convection Parameterization in Weather Forecast and Climate Models” was organized with European funding (COST Action ES0905) for the period of 2010–2014. Its extensive brainstorming suggests how the subgrid-scale parameterization problem in atmospheric modeling, especially for convection, can be examined and developed from the point of view of a robust theoretical basis. Our main cautions are current emphasis on massive observational data analyses and process studies. The closure and the entrainment–detrainment problems are identified as the two highest priorities for convection parameterization under the mass–flux formulation. The need for a drastic change of the current European research culture as concerns policies and funding in order not to further deplete the visions of the European researchers focusing on those basic issues is emphasized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cloud and Precipitation)
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Open AccessArticle
Wind Regimes above and below a Temperate Deciduous Forest Canopy in Complex Terrain: Interactions between Slope and Valley Winds
Atmosphere 2015, 6(1), 60-87; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos6010060 - 25 Dec 2014
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3081
Abstract
The thermally driven wind over mountainous terrains challenges the estimation of CO2 exchange between forests and the atmosphere when using the eddy covariance technique. In this study, the wind regimes were investigated in a temperate deciduous forested valley at the Maoershan site, [...] Read more.
The thermally driven wind over mountainous terrains challenges the estimation of CO2 exchange between forests and the atmosphere when using the eddy covariance technique. In this study, the wind regimes were investigated in a temperate deciduous forested valley at the Maoershan site, Northeast China. The wind direction above the canopy was preferentially up-valley in the daytime and down-valley in the nighttime, corresponding to the diurnal patterns of above-canopy temperature gradient and stability parameter. In both leaf-on and -off nighttime, a down-valley flow with a maximum velocity of 1~3 m∙s−1 was often developed at 42 m above the ground (2.3-fold of the canopy height). However, the below-canopy prevailing wind was down-slope in the night, contrast to the below-canopy temperature lapse and unstable conditions. This substantial directional shear illustrated shallow slope winds were superimposed on larger-scale valley winds. As a consequence, the valley-wind component becomes stronger with increasing height, indicating a clear confluence of drainage flow to the valley center. In the daytime, the below-canopy wind was predominated down-slope due to the temperature inversion and stable conditions in the leaf-on season, and was mainly up-valley or down-slope in the leaf-off season. The isolation of momentum flux and radiation by the dense canopy played a key role in the formation of the below-canopy unaligned wind and inverse stability. Significant lateral kinematic momentum fluxes were detected due to the directional shear. These findings suggested a significant interaction between slope and valley winds at this site. The frequent vertical convergence / divergence above the canopy and horizontal divergence/convergence below the canopy in the nighttime / daytime is likely to induce significant advections of trace gases and energy flux. Full article
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Open AccessShort Note
Vertical and Horizontal Polarization Observations of Slowly Varying Solar Emissions from Operational Swiss Weather Radars
Atmosphere 2015, 6(1), 50-59; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos6010050 - 24 Dec 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2187
Abstract
The electromagnetic power that arrives from the Sun in the C-band has been used to check the quality of the polarimetric, Doppler weather radar network that has recently been installed in Switzerland. The operational monitoring of this network is based on the analysis [...] Read more.
The electromagnetic power that arrives from the Sun in the C-band has been used to check the quality of the polarimetric, Doppler weather radar network that has recently been installed in Switzerland. The operational monitoring of this network is based on the analysis of Sun signals in the polar volume data produced during the MeteoSwiss scan program. It relies on a method that has been developed to: (1) determine electromagnetic antenna pointing; (2) monitor receiver stability; and (3) assess the differential reflectivity offset. Most of the results from such a method had been derived using data acquired in 2008, which was a period of quiet solar flux activity. Here, it has been applied, in simplified form, to the currently active Sun period. This note describes the results that have been obtained recently thanks to an inter-comparison of three polarimetric operational radars and the Sun’s reference signal observed in Canada in the S-band by the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO). The focus is on relative calibration: horizontal and vertical polarization are evaluated versus the DRAO reference and mutually compared. All six radar receivers (three systems, two polarizations) are able to capture and describe the monthly variability of the microwave signal emitted by the Sun. It can be concluded that even this simplified form of the method has the potential to routinely monitor dual-polarization weather radar networks during periods of intense Sun activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Role of Surface Energy Exchange for Simulating Wind Turbine Inflow: A Case Study in the Southern Great Plains, USA
Atmosphere 2015, 6(1), 21-49; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos6010021 - 24 Dec 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2764
Abstract
The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to investigate choice of land surface model (LSM) on the near surface wind profile, including heights reached by multi-megawatt (MW) wind turbines. Simulations of wind profiles and surface energy fluxes were made using five [...] Read more.
The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to investigate choice of land surface model (LSM) on the near surface wind profile, including heights reached by multi-megawatt (MW) wind turbines. Simulations of wind profiles and surface energy fluxes were made using five LSMs of varying degrees of sophistication in dealing with soil–plant–atmosphere feedbacks for the Department of Energy (DOE) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Central Facility in Oklahoma, USA. Surface flux and wind profile measurements were available for validation. WRF was run for three, two-week periods covering varying canopy and meteorological conditions. The LSMs predicted a wide range of energy flux and wind shear magnitudes even during the cool autumn period when we expected less variability. Simulations of energy fluxes varied in accuracy by model sophistication, whereby LSMs with very simple or no soil–plant–atmosphere feedbacks were the least accurate; however, the most complex models did not consistently produce more accurate results. Errors in wind shear were also sensitive to LSM choice and were partially related to energy flux accuracy. The variability of LSM performance was relatively high suggesting that LSM representation of energy fluxes in WRF remains a large source of model uncertainty for simulating wind turbine inflow conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring The Atmosphere's First Mile)
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Open AccessArticle
Seasonal Variations in Health Hazards from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Bound to Submicrometer Particles at Three Characteristic Sites in the Heavily Polluted Polish Region
Atmosphere 2015, 6(1), 1-20; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos6010001 - 24 Dec 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2124
Abstract
Suspended particles with aerodynamic diameters not greater than 1 μm (PM1) were sampled at the urban background; regional background; and urban traffic points in southern Poland. In total, 120 samples were collected between 2 August 2009 and 27 December 2010. Sixteen [...] Read more.
Suspended particles with aerodynamic diameters not greater than 1 μm (PM1) were sampled at the urban background; regional background; and urban traffic points in southern Poland. In total, 120 samples were collected between 2 August 2009 and 27 December 2010. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in each sample. The samples were collected with a high volume sampler (Digitel). Afterwards, they were chemically analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (Perkin Elmer Clarus 500). The mean concentration values of the PAH sum (ΣPAH) and particular PAHs; the percentages of carcinogenic PAHs in total PAHs (ΣPAHcarc/ΣPAH); carcinogenic equivalent (CEQ); mutagenic equivalent (MEQ); and TCDD-toxic equivalent (TEQ) were much higher in the winter (heating) season than in the summer (non-heating) one. For both periods, the resulting average values obtained were significantly higher (a few; and sometimes a several dozen times higher) in the researched Polish region than the values observed in other areas of the world. Such results indicate the importance of health hazards resulting from PM1 and PM1-bound PAHs in this Polish area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality and Climate)
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