Systematically observing components of the climate system as well as their processes and interactions are crucial to understand the weather, climate, climate change, etc. In order to launch long-term, continuous, stereoscopic, and integrated meteorological observations for key regions of the climate system in southwestern China where it is sensitive to interactions among multiple layers and exchanges of mass and energy, the Dali National Climate Observatory (DNCO) was established in May 2006. To date, the DNCO has gradually performed an integrated meteorological observation network in a complex terrain region over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau including the conventional observations of weather and climate, and the special observations of radiation, lightning, soil moisture, wind profile, water vapor, water quality, water level, water temperature profile, turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, carbon dioxide, and methane, etc. Furthermore, the DNCO mainly focuses on the field observation experiments and scientific research activities for mountain meteorology. This paper presents an overview of the DNCO including its location, climatology, scientific objectives, research tasks, and existing observation projects. The progresses in observation and associated research including data quality controls and assessments, recent observation results, and regional numerical model tests are summarized. Future works are also discussed.
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