Next Article in Journal
Characterization of Total OH Reactivity in a Rapeseed Field: Results from the COV3ER Experiment in April 2017
Previous Article in Journal
WRF Sensitivity Analysis in Wind and Temperature Fields Simulation for the Northern Sahara and the Mediterranean Basin
Previous Article in Special Issue
Towards Unifying the Planetary Boundary Layer and Shallow Convection in CAM5 with the Eddy-Diffusivity/Mass-Flux Approach
Open AccessArticle

Diurnal and Seasonal Variations of Surface Energy and CO2 Fluxes over a Site in Western Tibetan Plateau

by Xingbing Zhao 1,2, Changwei Liu 3, Nan Yang 4 and Yubin Li 4,5,*
1
School of Applied Meteorology, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
2
Institute of Plateau Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, Chengdu 610072, China
3
School of Remote Sensing and Geomatics Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
4
School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
5
Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), Zhuhai 519082, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(3), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11030260
Received: 22 January 2020 / Revised: 1 March 2020 / Accepted: 2 March 2020 / Published: 5 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulent Transport in Atmospheric Boundary Layers)
Land surface process observations in the western Tibet Plateau (TP) are limited because of the abominable natural conditions. During the field campaign of the Third Tibetan Plateau Atmospheric Scientific Experiment (TIPEX III), continuous measurements on the four radiation fluxes (downward/upward short/long-wave radiations), three heat fluxes (turbulent sensible/latent heat fluxes and soil heat flux) and also CO2 flux were collected from June 2015 through January 2017 at Shiquanhe (32.50° N, 80.08° E, 4279.3 m above sea level) in the western Tibetan Plateau. Diurnal and seasonal variation characteristics of these surface energy and CO2 fluxes were presented and analyzed in this study. Results show that (1) diurnal variations of the seven energy fluxes were found with different magnitudes, (2) seasonal variations appeared for the seven energy fluxes with their maxima in summer and minima in winter, (3) diurnal and seasonal variations of respiration caused by the biological and chemical processes within the soil were found, and absorption (release) of CO2 around 0.1 mg m−2 s−1 occurred at afternoon of summer (midnight of winter), but the absorption and release generally canceled out from a yearly perspective; and (4) the surface energy balance ratio went through both diurnal and seasonal cycles, and in summer months the slopes of the fitting curve were above 0.6, but in winter months they were around 0.5. Comparing the results of the Shiquanhe site with the central and eastern TP sites, it was found that (1) they all generally had similar seasonal and diurnal variations of the fluxes, (2) caused by the low rainfall quantity, latent heat flux at Shiquanhe (daily daytime mean always less than 90 W m−2) was distinctively smaller than at the central and eastern TP sites during the wet season (generally larger than 100 W m−2), and (3) affected by various factors, the residual energy was comparatively larger at Shiquanhe, which led to a small surface energy balance ratio. View Full-Text
Keywords: radiation fluxes; turbulent heat fluxes; CO2 flux; diurnal variations; seasonal variations; western Tibet Plateau radiation fluxes; turbulent heat fluxes; CO2 flux; diurnal variations; seasonal variations; western Tibet Plateau
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, X.; Liu, C.; Yang, N.; Li, Y. Diurnal and Seasonal Variations of Surface Energy and CO2 Fluxes over a Site in Western Tibetan Plateau. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 260.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop