A sudden rainstorm that occurred in the northeast Sichuan Basin of China in early May 2017 was associated with a southwest low-level jet (SWLJ) and a mountainous low-level jet (MLLJ). This study investigates the impact of the double low-level jets (LLJs) on rainfall diurnal variation by using the data from ERA5 reanalysis, and explores the characteristics of water vapor transport, including the main paths and sources of moisture, by using the HYSPLIT-driven data of the ERA—interim, GDAS (Global Data Assimilation System), and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The analysis shows that the sudden rainstorm in the mountain terrain was located at the left side of the large-scale SWLJ at 700 hPa, and at the exit region of the meso-scale MLLJ at 850 hPa. The double LLJs provide favorable moisture conditions, and the enhancement (weakening) of the LLJs is ahead of the start (end) of the rainstorm. The capacity of the LLJ at 850 hPa with respect to moisture convergence is superior to that at 700 hPa, especially when the MLLJ and the southerly LLJ at 850 hPa appear at the same time. The HYSPLIT backward trajectory model based on Lagrangian methods has favorable applicability in the event of sudden rainstorms in mountainous terrain, and there is no special path of moisture transport in this precipitation event. The main moisture sources of this process are the East China Sea–South China Sea, the Arabian Sea–Indian Peninsula, the Bay of Bengal, and the Middle East, accounting for 38%, 34%, 17% and 11% of the total moisture transport, respectively. Among them, the moisture transport in the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea–East China Sea is mainly located in the lower troposphere, which is below 900 hPa, while the moisture transport in the Arabian Sea–Indian Peninsula and the Middle East is mainly in the middle and upper layers of the troposphere. The moisture changes of the transport trajectories are affected by the topography, especially the high mountains around the Sichuan Basin.
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