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Open AccessArticle

Correlation of Oxidative Potential with Ecotoxicological and Cytotoxicological Potential of PM10 at an Urban Background Site in Italy

1
Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences and Technologies (DISTEBA), University of Salento, 73100 Lecce, Italy
2
Mathematics and Physics Department, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce, Italy
3
Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, ISAC-CNR, Str. Prv. Lecce-Monteroni km 1.2, 73100 Lecce, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(12), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10120733
Received: 17 October 2019 / Revised: 6 November 2019 / Accepted: 18 November 2019 / Published: 22 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Potential of Atmospheric Aerosols)
Exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has detrimental effects on health, but specific mechanisms of toxicity are still not fully understood. In recent years, there has been a growing evidence that oxidative stress is an important mechanism of toxicity; however, when acellular oxidative potential (OP) data are correlated with the outcomes of in vitro (or in vivo) toxicological tests there are contrasting results. In this work, an analysis of PM10 health effect indicators was done, using the acellular Dithiotreitol (DTT) assay to retrieve OPDTT, the Microtox® test on Vibrio fischeri bacterium to assess the ecotoxicological potential, and the in vitro MTT assay on the human cell line A549 to estimate the cytotoxicological potential. The objective was to evaluate the correlation among acellular OPDTT and the results from toxicological and ecotoxicological bioassays and how these health-related indicators are correlated with atmospheric PM10 concentrations collected at an urban background site in Southern Italy. Results indicated that both bioassays showed time-dependent and dose-dependent outcomes. Some samples presented significant ecotoxic and cytotoxic response and the correlation with PM10 concentration was limited suggesting that these health endpoints depend on PM10 chemical composition and not only on exposure concentrations. OPDTT showed a statistically significant correlation with PM10 concentrations. MTT and Microtox outcomes were not correlated suggesting that the two toxicological indicators are sensitive to different physical-chemical properties of PM10. Intrinsic oxidative potential OPDTTM (DTT activity normalised with PM10 mass) was correlated with mortality observed with MTT test (normalized with PM10 mass); however, it was not correlated with Microtox outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: MTT test; oxidative potential; cytotoxicity; ecotoxicological potential; DTT assay; health effects of particulate MTT test; oxidative potential; cytotoxicity; ecotoxicological potential; DTT assay; health effects of particulate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lionetto, M.G.; Guascito, M.R.; Caricato, R.; Giordano, M.E.; De Bartolomeo, A.R.; Romano, M.P.; Conte, M.; Dinoi, A.; Contini, D. Correlation of Oxidative Potential with Ecotoxicological and Cytotoxicological Potential of PM10 at an Urban Background Site in Italy. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 733.

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