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Genes 2018, 9(8), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9080379

Genomic and Biotechnological Characterization of the Heavy-Metal Resistant, Arsenic-Oxidizing Bacterium Ensifer sp. M14

1
Laboratory of Microbial Genetics, Department of Biology, University of Florence, via Madonna del Piano 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
2
Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Analysis, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland
3
Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warynskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland
4
Department of Bacterial Genetics, Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland
5
Department of Mineralogy, Petrography and Geochemistry, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 22 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomics of Bacterial Metal Resistance)
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Abstract

Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) sp. M14 is an efficient arsenic-oxidizing bacterium (AOB) that displays high resistance to numerous metals and various stressors. Here, we report the draft genome sequence and genome-guided characterization of Ensifer sp. M14, and we describe a pilot-scale installation applying the M14 strain for remediation of arsenic-contaminated waters. The M14 genome contains 6874 protein coding sequences, including hundreds not found in related strains. Nearly all unique genes that are associated with metal resistance and arsenic oxidation are localized within the pSinA and pSinB megaplasmids. Comparative genomics revealed that multiple copies of high-affinity phosphate transport systems are common in AOBs, possibly as an As-resistance mechanism. Genome and antibiotic sensitivity analyses further suggested that the use of Ensifer sp. M14 in biotechnology does not pose serious biosafety risks. Therefore, a novel two-stage installation for remediation of arsenic-contaminated waters was developed. It consists of a microbiological module, where M14 oxidizes As(III) to As(V) ion, followed by an adsorption module for As(V) removal using granulated bog iron ores. During a 40-day pilot-scale test in an abandoned gold mine in Zloty Stok (Poland), water leaving the microbiological module generally contained trace amounts of As(III), and dramatic decreases in total arsenic concentrations were observed after passage through the adsorption module. These results demonstrate the usefulness of Ensifer sp. M14 in arsenic removal performed in environmental settings. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) sp. M14; arsenic-oxidizing bacteria; heavy metal resistance; draft genome sequence; comparative genomic analysis; biosafety; biotechnology for arsenic removal; adsorption; water treatment; in situ (bio)remediation Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) sp. M14; arsenic-oxidizing bacteria; heavy metal resistance; draft genome sequence; comparative genomic analysis; biosafety; biotechnology for arsenic removal; adsorption; water treatment; in situ (bio)remediation
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diCenzo, G.C.; Debiec, K.; Krzysztoforski, J.; Uhrynowski, W.; Mengoni, A.; Fagorzi, C.; Gorecki, A.; Dziewit, L.; Bajda, T.; Rzepa, G.; Drewniak, L. Genomic and Biotechnological Characterization of the Heavy-Metal Resistant, Arsenic-Oxidizing Bacterium Ensifer sp. M14. Genes 2018, 9, 379.

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