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RNA Editing and Its Molecular Mechanism in Plant Organelles

1
Center for Gene Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602, Japan
2
Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: H. Ulrich Göringer
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 23 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RNA Editing)
RNA editing by cytidine (C) to uridine (U) conversions is widespread in plant mitochondria and chloroplasts. In some plant taxa, “reverse” U-to-C editing also occurs. However, to date, no instance of RNA editing has yet been reported in green algae and the complex thalloid liverworts. RNA editing may have evolved in early land plants 450 million years ago. However, in some plant species, including the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, editing may have been lost during evolution. Most RNA editing events can restore the evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues in mRNAs or create translation start and stop codons. Therefore, RNA editing is an essential process to maintain genetic information at the RNA level. Individual RNA editing sites are recognized by plant-specific pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins that are encoded in the nuclear genome. These PPR proteins are characterized by repeat elements that bind specifically to RNA sequences upstream of target editing sites. In flowering plants, non-PPR proteins also participate in multiple RNA editing events as auxiliary factors. C-to-U editing can be explained by cytidine deamination. The proteins discovered to date are important factors for RNA editing but a bona fide RNA editing enzyme has yet to be identified. View Full-Text
Keywords: RNA editing; chloroplasts; mitochondria; plant organelles; C-to-U editing; U-to-C editing; pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein; site-recognition specificity factor; cytidine deaminase RNA editing; chloroplasts; mitochondria; plant organelles; C-to-U editing; U-to-C editing; pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein; site-recognition specificity factor; cytidine deaminase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ichinose, M.; Sugita, M. RNA Editing and Its Molecular Mechanism in Plant Organelles. Genes 2017, 8, 5. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes8010005

AMA Style

Ichinose M, Sugita M. RNA Editing and Its Molecular Mechanism in Plant Organelles. Genes. 2017; 8(1):5. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes8010005

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ichinose, Mizuho; Sugita, Mamoru. 2017. "RNA Editing and Its Molecular Mechanism in Plant Organelles" Genes 8, no. 1: 5. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes8010005

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