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Review

Strategies to Improve the Clinical Outcomes for Direct-to-Consumer Pharmacogenomic Tests

1
Department of Analysis and Bioanalysis of Medicines, Faculty of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-089 Bialystok, Poland
2
Clinical Research Centre, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-276 Bialystok, Poland
3
Department of Population Medicine and Civilization Diseases Prevention, Faculty of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry and Division of Medical Education in English, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-269 Bialystok, Poland
4
Department of Pathology and Medical Laboratory, Shohada Hospital, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Behshahr 4851613185, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Guillermo Gervasini and Caruz Caruz
Genes 2021, 12(3), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12030361
Received: 13 January 2021 / Revised: 22 February 2021 / Accepted: 27 February 2021 / Published: 3 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Risk Factors of Complex Diseases)
Direct-to-consumer genetic tests (DTC-GT) have become a bridge between marketing and traditional healthcare services. After earning FDA endorsement for such facilities, several fast-developing companies started to compete in the related area. Pharmacogenomic (PGx) tests have been introduced as potentially one of the main medical services of such companies. Most of the individuals will be interested in finding out about the phenotypic consequences of their genetic variants and molecular risk factors against diverse medicines they take or will take later. Direct-to-consumer pharmacogenomic tests (DTC-PT) is still in its young age, however it is expected to expand rapidly through the industry in the future. The result of PGx tests could be considered as the main road toward the implementation of personalized and precision medicine in the clinic. This narrative critical review study provides a descriptive overview on DTC-GT, then focuses on DTC-PT, and also introduces and suggests the potential approaches for improving the clinical related outcomes of such tests on healthcare systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: direct-to-consumer pharmacogenomic tests; clinical related outcome; personalized medicine direct-to-consumer pharmacogenomic tests; clinical related outcome; personalized medicine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tafazoli, A.; Guggilla, R.K.; Kamel-Koleti, Z.; Miltyk, W. Strategies to Improve the Clinical Outcomes for Direct-to-Consumer Pharmacogenomic Tests. Genes 2021, 12, 361. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12030361

AMA Style

Tafazoli A, Guggilla RK, Kamel-Koleti Z, Miltyk W. Strategies to Improve the Clinical Outcomes for Direct-to-Consumer Pharmacogenomic Tests. Genes. 2021; 12(3):361. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12030361

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tafazoli, Alireza, Rama K. Guggilla, Zahra Kamel-Koleti, and Wojciech Miltyk. 2021. "Strategies to Improve the Clinical Outcomes for Direct-to-Consumer Pharmacogenomic Tests" Genes 12, no. 3: 361. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12030361

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