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Genetic Diversity of Plasmodium vivax Cysteine-Rich Protective Antigen (PvCyRPA) in Field Isolates from Five Different Areas of the Brazilian Amazon

1
Laboratory of Immunoparasitology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro 21040-900, Brazil
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Laboratory of Basic and Applied Immunology, Arthur Sá Earp Neto University Center, Petrópolis 25680-120, Brazil
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Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro 21040-900, Brazil
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Laboratory of Malaria Research, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro 21040-900, Brazil
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Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Biomedical Institute, Fluminense Federal University, Rio de Janeiro 24210-130, Brazil
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Laboratory of Monoclonal Antibodies Technology, Institute of Immunobiology Technology, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro 21040-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: José Antonio Garrido-Cárdenas
Genes 2021, 12(11), 1657; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12111657
Received: 27 August 2021 / Revised: 27 September 2021 / Accepted: 27 September 2021 / Published: 21 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Human Genomics and Genetic Diseases)
The Plasmodium vivax Cysteine-Rich Protective Antigen (PvCyRPA) has an important role in erythrocyte invasion and has been considered a target for vivax malaria vaccine development. Nonetheless, its genetic diversity remains uncharted in Brazilian malaria-endemic areas. Therefore, we investigated the pvcyrpa genetic polymorphism in 98 field isolates from the Brazilian Amazon and its impact on the antigenicity of predicted B-cell epitopes. Genetic diversity parameters, population genetic analysis, neutrality test and the median-joining network were analyzed, and the potential amino acid polymorphism participation in B-cell epitopes was investigated. One synonymous and 26 non-synonymous substitutions defined fifty haplotypes. The nucleotide diversity and Tajima’s D values varied across the coding gene. The exon-1 sequence had greater diversity than those of exon-2. Concerning the prediction analysis, seven sequences were predicted as linear B cell epitopes, the majority contained in conformational epitopes. Moreover, important amino acid polymorphism was detected in regions predicted to contain residues participating in B-cell epitopes. Our data suggest that the pvcyrpa gene presents a moderate polymorphism in the studied isolates and such polymorphisms alter amino acid sequences contained in potential B cell epitopes, an important observation considering the antigen potentiality as a vaccine candidate to cover distinct P. vivax endemic areas worldwide. View Full-Text
Keywords: malaria; Brazilian Amazon; Plasmodium vivax; PvCyRPA; genetic diversity; prediction; vaccine candidate malaria; Brazilian Amazon; Plasmodium vivax; PvCyRPA; genetic diversity; prediction; vaccine candidate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bitencourt Chaves, L.; Guimarães, G.d.O.; Perce-da-Silva, D.d.S.; Banic, D.M.; Totino, P.R.R.; Machado, R.L.D.; Rodrigues-da-Silva, R.N.; Pratt-Riccio, L.R.; Daniel-Ribeiro, C.T.; Lima-Junior, J.d.C. Genetic Diversity of Plasmodium vivax Cysteine-Rich Protective Antigen (PvCyRPA) in Field Isolates from Five Different Areas of the Brazilian Amazon. Genes 2021, 12, 1657. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12111657

AMA Style

Bitencourt Chaves L, Guimarães GdO, Perce-da-Silva DdS, Banic DM, Totino PRR, Machado RLD, Rodrigues-da-Silva RN, Pratt-Riccio LR, Daniel-Ribeiro CT, Lima-Junior JdC. Genetic Diversity of Plasmodium vivax Cysteine-Rich Protective Antigen (PvCyRPA) in Field Isolates from Five Different Areas of the Brazilian Amazon. Genes. 2021; 12(11):1657. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12111657

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bitencourt Chaves, Lana, Glaucia d.O. Guimarães, Daiana d.S. Perce-da-Silva, Dalma M. Banic, Paulo R.R. Totino, Ricardo L.D. Machado, Rodrigo N. Rodrigues-da-Silva, Lilian R. Pratt-Riccio, Cláudio T. Daniel-Ribeiro, and Josué d.C. Lima-Junior 2021. "Genetic Diversity of Plasmodium vivax Cysteine-Rich Protective Antigen (PvCyRPA) in Field Isolates from Five Different Areas of the Brazilian Amazon" Genes 12, no. 11: 1657. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12111657

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