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Chromosome and Genome Divergence between the Cryptic Eurasian Malaria Vector-Species Anopheles messeae and Anopheles daciae

1
Department of Entomology and the Fralin Life Science Institute, Virginia Polytechnic and State University, 360 West Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
2
Laboratory of Evolutionary Genomics of Insects, the Federal Research Center Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 10 Prospekt Lavrentyeva, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
3
Department of General Biology and Ecology, Moscow Regional State University, 10a Radio Street, 105005 Moscow, Russia
4
Laboratory of Cell Differentiation Mechanisms, the Federal Research Center Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 10 Prospekt Lavrentyeva, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
5
Laboratory of Ecology, Genetics and Environment Protection, Tomsk State University, 36 Lenina Street, 634041 Tomsk, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The first four authors equally contributed to the paper.
Genes 2020, 11(2), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11020165
Received: 31 December 2019 / Revised: 31 January 2020 / Accepted: 2 February 2020 / Published: 5 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromosome-Centric View of the Genome Organization and Evolution)
Chromosomal inversions are important drivers of genome evolution. The Eurasian malaria vector Anopheles messeae has five polymorphic inversions. A cryptic species, An. daciae, has been discriminated from An. messeae based on five fixed nucleotide substitutions in the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA. However, the inversion polymorphism in An. daciae and the genome divergence between these species remain unexplored. In this study, we sequenced the ITS2 region and analyzed the inversion frequencies of 289 Anopheles larvae specimens collected from three locations in the Moscow region. Five individual genomes for each of the two species were sequenced. We determined that An. messeae and An. daciae differ from each other by the frequency of polymorphic inversions. Inversion X1 was fixed in An. messeae but polymorphic in An. daciae populations. The genome sequence comparison demonstrated genome-wide divergence between the species, especially pronounced on the inversion-rich X chromosome (mean Fst = 0.331). The frequency of polymorphic autosomal inversions was higher in An. messeae than in An. daciae. We conclude that the X chromosome inversions play an important role in the genomic differentiation between the species. Our study determined that An. messeae and An. daciae are closely related species with incomplete reproductive isolation. View Full-Text
Keywords: malaria mosquitoes; polymorphic inversions; genome; internal transcribed spacer 2 malaria mosquitoes; polymorphic inversions; genome; internal transcribed spacer 2
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Naumenko, A.N.; Karagodin, D.A.; Yurchenko, A.A.; Moskaev, A.V.; Martin, O.I.; Baricheva, E.M.; Sharakhov, I.V.; Gordeev, M.I.; Sharakhova, M.V. Chromosome and Genome Divergence between the Cryptic Eurasian Malaria Vector-Species Anopheles messeae and Anopheles daciae. Genes 2020, 11, 165.

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