Endonuclease-mediated genome editing technologies, most notably CRISPR/Cas9, have revolutionized animal genetics by allowing for precise genome editing directly through embryo manipulations. As endonuclease-mediated model generation became commonplace, large fragment knock-in remained one of the most challenging types of genetic modification. Due to their unique value in biological and biomedical research, however, a diverse range of technological innovations have been developed to achieve efficient large fragment knock-in in mammalian animal model generation, with a particular focus on mice. Here, we first discuss some examples that illustrate the importance of large fragment knock-in animal models and then detail a subset of the recent technological advancements that have allowed for efficient large fragment knock-in. Finally, we envision the future development of even larger fragment knock-ins performed in even larger animal models, the next step in expanding the potential of large fragment knock-in in animal models.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited